Sinopharm COVID-19 & Latest Influenza Vaccines (Protects against Flu and H1N1 Viruses) / PCR COVID Testing / Serology Tests for Travellers & Serology Testing to Certify Vaccination status. Make your Appointment at Tel: 6694 1661

Latest COVID-19 Updates & Health Tips

Latest COVID variant of concern, Omicron Explained

COVID Statistics by Country (as at 24 Sep 2021)

Check out your country's COVID statistics @ https://covidvisualizer.com/

- China

COVID Vaccine used : Sinopharm


- Singapore

COVID Vaccines used in most substantial quantity : Pfizer / Moderna


- USA

COVID Vaccines used in most substantial quantity : Pfizer / Moderna


- UK

COVID Vaccine used in most substantial quantity : AstraZeneca


- Japan


- South Korea


- Australia


COVID-19's Gut Connection

A multidisciplinary research team from Harvard Medical School, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and other institutions has identified the mechanism that causes an extremely rare but serious post-COVID-19 complication to develop in children and adolescents.

They determined that viral particles remaining in the gut long after an initial SARS-CoV-2 infection can travel into the bloodstream, instigating a condition called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). MIS-C occurs in less than 1 percent of children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The syndrome can occur several weeks after an initial infection. Symptoms include high fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, and extreme fatigue. The hyperinflammatory response and “cytokine storm” seen in MIS-C can lead to extensive damage in the heart, liver, and other organs. 

The team hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 viral particles found in the gastrointestinal tract of children move into the bloodstream, leading to the hyperinflammatory immune response characteristic of MIS-C. In 2000, Alessio Fasano and his team at the University of Maryland School of Medicine discovered zonulin, a protein that regulates intestinal permeability by opening the tight junctions between gut epithelial cells in the small intestine. 

This opening of the spaces between epithelial cells allows the passage of substances from the gut lumen into the bloodstream, including gluten, which can cause symptoms in people genetically predisposed to celiac disease. Learn more here :

Ref : https://hms.harvard.edu/news/covid-19s-gut-connection

COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Virus Information

Get Vaccinated!

  • COVID Vaccine & Booster - Sinopharm vaccine
  • Flu Vaccine
  • Childhood & Adult Vaccine schedule (Refer to NAIS & NCIS)

Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella)

Genes & Blood Type Tied to Risk of Severe COVID-19

A recent genome-wide association (GWAS) study, just published in the New England Journal of Medicine, finds that gene variants in two regions of the human genome are associated with severe COVID-19 and correspondingly carry a greater risk of COVID-19-related death.

The two stretches of DNA implicated as harbouring risks for severe COVID-19 are known to carry some intriguing genes, including one that determines blood type and others that play various roles in the immune system. In fact, the findings suggest that people with blood type A face a 50 percent greater risk of needing oxygen support or a ventilator should they become infected with the novel coronavirus. In contrast, people with blood type O appear to have about a 50 percent reduced risk of severe COVID-19.

Analysis identified two places that turned up significantly more often in the individuals with severe COVID-19 than in the healthy folks. One of them is found on chromosome 3 and covers a cluster of six genes with potentially relevant functions. For instance, this portion of the genome encodes a transporter protein known to interact with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the surface receptor that allows the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, to bind to and infect human cells. It also encodes a collection of chemokine receptors, which play a role in the immune response in the airways of our lungs.

The other association signal popped up on chromosome 9, right over the area of the genome that determines blood type. Whether you are classified as an A, B, AB, or O blood type, depends on how your genes instruct your blood cells to produce (or not produce) a certain set of proteins. The researchers did find evidence suggesting a relationship between blood type and COVID-19 risk. They noted that this area also includes a genetic variant associated with increased levels of interleukin-6, which plays a role in inflammation and may have implications for COVID-19 as well.

The risk for severe COVID-19 was 45% higher for people with type A blood than those with other blood types. It appeared to be 35% lower for people with type O.

Ref: Characteristics of and important lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Wu Z, McGoogan JM, et. al. 2020 Feb 24. [published online ahead of print]

Genomewide association study of severe Covid-19 with respiratory failure . Ellinghaus D, Degenhardt F, et. a. NEJM. June 17, 2020.


COVID-19 Sinopharm Vaccine & Booster

Sinopharm COVID-19 Vaccine is available @ MD International Medical Centre. Make a Vaccination or Booster Appointment at Tel: 6694 1661.

Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV vaccine has now been approved for use by private clinics in Singapore against the COVID-19 virus under the Special Access Route. It is the first China-made vaccine to be approved by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

To date, more than a billion doses of the Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV have been administered. The vaccine has also been approved for use in over 50 countries around the world.

Inactivated vaccines are a tried-and-tested form of vaccine technology which is used in other well-established vaccines, such as the Flu and Hepatitis B vaccines.

Effects of COVID-19 on the Brain

COVID Symptoms to watch out for:

SARS-CoV-2 Virus Infection of Human Organ  Tissues through Cell ACE-2 Receptors:

Singapore Ministry of Health Recommendation:

  • For persons who have already completed their Primary series with mRNA vaccines and are recommended to get a booster, but are unable to take another dose of mRNA vaccines for medical reasons, they may boost using one dose of Sinopharm vaccine. The booster should be taken six months after mRNA dose 2 (M-M-S).

  • For persons who are unable to take the 2nd dose of mRNA vaccines for medical reasons, they may complete their vaccination with the Sinopharm vaccine. 2 doses of the Sinopharm vaccine is recommended to complete the Primary series. The 2nd Sinopharm dose should be taken 28 days after the 1st Sinopharm dose (M-S-S).

For recovered persons who had not completed a primary series before infection:

  • For persons who have recovered from a COVID-19 infection but received 1 dose or none of COVID-19 vaccination prior, they may receive 2 doses of the Sinopharm vaccine (28 days interval between doses), 3 months after the date of infection to complete a primary vaccination series (Recovered-S-S or S-Recovered-S-S or M-Recovered-S-S).

  • For persons who have recovered from a COVID-19 infection and had received 2 doses of Sinovac or Sinopharm vaccines prior, they may receive 1 dose of Sinopharm after 3 months from the date of infection to complete a primary vaccination series (S-S-Recovered-S).

Romina Libster: The power of herd immunity

How do vaccines prevent disease — even among people too young to get vaccinated? It's a concept called "herd immunity," and it relies on a critical mass of people getting their shots to break the chain of infection. Health researcher Romina Libster shows how herd immunity contained a deadly outbreak of H1N1 in her hometown. (In Spanish with subtitles.)

Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella)

Part of the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance programme with MOH. If you have a fever of > 38 degrees with a cough, our clinic is able to test for COVID-19. For children below 12 years old with clinical diagnosis of HFMD (eg fever, oral ulcers, rash), our clinic can test for Hand Foot & Mouth Disease (The tests are for surveillance purposes only).


Latest Influenza Vaccine

Asymptomatic patients may display no symptoms of illness. Vulnerable people should get vaccinated against Influenza which protects susceptible people from, as well as exclude the Flu and H1N1 viruses should they start to show URTI or ARI symptoms.

The latest Influenza Vaccine is now available. It protects against the Flu and H1N1 Viruses. Ministry of Health Safety protocols are adhered to at all times for the safe vaccination of you and your family.

* Importance of Keeping your Vaccinations Up-to-date


COVID-19 Vaccines Update

  • Sinovac Biotech has entered Phase 3 clinical trials for its coronavirus vaccine. The vaccine has safely elicited an immune response from Phase 2 human trials. The Beijing-based company’s vaccine, called CoronaVac, has not caused severe side effects and more than 90% of people administered with the shot on a 14-day interval have induced neutralizing antibodies two weeks after inoculation.
  • Oxford COVID-19 vaccine to begin phase II/III human trials. Working with AstraZeneca, they hope to start production of the vaccine which comes in the form of an inhaler by August 2020.
  • GSK (GlaxoSmithKline) and Sanofi, two of the world’s biggest vaccine manufacturers are collaborating to develop an adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine, using Sanofi’s recombinant DNA technology. They are starting phase I clinical trials in the second half of 2020 and anticipate mass producing the vaccine by the second half of 2021.

Click here to learn more about the COVID-19 vaccine.

How do Asymptomatic COVID-19 cases affect the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Asymptomatic or Presymptomatic ‘Silent’ Transmission

Asymptomatic: people who carry the active virus in their body but never develop any symptoms

Presymptomatic: people who have been infected and are incubating the virus but don't yet show symptoms

Very mildly symptomatic: people who feel a little unwell from a COVID-19 infection but continue to come in close contact with others

Click here to learn more about Infectious Viral Shedding and the possible 'Second wave' of COVID-19 transmissions.


COVID-19 Testing

- SARS-CoV-2 PCR test vs Antibodies Serology Test

Most countries have been testing all suspected COVID-19 cases with the RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) test, which tests for the RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It  can determine who is currently infected with the virus. It does not reveal the status of whether the patient was infected in the past and has since recovered from COVID-19.

The SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies test, however would be able to identify the COVID status of a population, whether they are undergoing the initial infection and fighting it (High IgM antibodies), whether they are overcoming the infection (High IgM & IgG antibodies) or that they have overcome the virus (High IgG antibodies only). The percentage of the population infected implied by the official case count and the serology survey differs widely. (Ref : The Economist – Uncertainty’s Principals, Science & Technology 2 May 20)

Most authorities are concerned about the accuracy of the SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies test, which is dependent on 2 aspects, its sensitivity (ability to detect the antibodies) and its specificity (ability to detect the correct antibodies). Within the first 7 to 10 days, the test can show a false negative because the body has not had an opportunity to mount an immune response yet. Health authorities should select the most accurate Antibodies test it can find, and retest any negative cases after 10 days to confirm the person’s COVID status.

As can be seen from the above table, both diagnostic tests can be used in tandem to better test a population, especially for asymptomatic COVID-19 cases which may continue to viral shed and create clusters that would defy contact-tracing efforts.

Ref : List of HSA Approved COVID-19 Diagnostic Tests in Singapore

World Bank Report on Testing for SARS-CoV-2 virus


Symptom Checker – How COVID-19 Compares with Other Illnesses

Information obtained from CDC & World Health Organization


Laurie Garrett: What can we learn from the 1918 flu?

In 2007, as the world worried about a possible avian flu epidemic, Laurie Garrett, author of "The Coming Plague," gave this powerful talk to a small TED University audience. Her insights from past pandemics are suddenly more relevant than ever.

Risk Factors of COVID-19 Complication

Source : Observer Research Foundation


Lung, Neurological, Liver & Kidney Diseases

Vitamins & Nutrients for a Well-functioning Immune System to Protect against COVID-19 & other Viral Infections

(Ref: Nutrients. 2020 Apr 23;12(4). pii: E1181. doi: 10.3390/nu12041181 Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections Calder PC1, Carr AC2, Gombart AF3, Eggersdorfer M4.

Co-infection of COVID-19 with other infectious diseases is possible

Reduce your risk of getting sick with COVID-19

  • Make sure your vaccinations are up-to-date. People older than 65 years, and those with many underlying conditions, such as those who are immunocompromised or with significant liver disease, are recommended to receive vaccinations against Influenza and pneumococcal disease (PCV). Click here for Vaccination schedules (NAIS/NCIS).
  • Do not delay getting medical care for your underlying condition because of COVID-19. MD International Medical Centre has contingency MOH infection prevention protocols to protect you from getting COVID-19 if you need care for your underlying condition.
  • Continue your medications and do not change your treatment plan without talking to your doctor.
  • Make sure that you have at least a two-week supply of your chronic disease medications.
  • Call MDIMC @ Tel: 6694 1661 for a medical appointment if you have any concerns about your underlying medical conditions or if you get sick. Our clinic is a PHPC-accredited medical clinic. Under the MOH Swab & Go Home programme, our doctors can do a COVID-19 PCR Swab test if you meet the MOH medical crtieria.

NAIS & NCIS - Singapore is free from vaccine-preventable diseases like poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (whooping cough) because of our successful immunisation progamme.

National Adult Immunisation Schedule (NAIS) Singapore @ MD International Medical Centre. Make your vaccination appointment at Tel: 6694 1661.

Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella).


Groups at Higher Risk for Severe Illness in a COVID-19 Infection

Comorbidities & Underlying Health Conditions in COVID-19 Patients with Complications


  • 高血压
  • 糖尿病
  • 脑血管疾病
  • 心血管疾病
  • 慢性肺部疾病
  • 慢性肾病
  • 哮喘
  • 失智
  • 慢性神经系统疾病
  • 癌症
  • 风湿病
  • 肥胖
  • 抽烟
  • 慢性血液系统疾病/血红蛋白血液疾病
  • 肝病/乙型肝炎感染
  • 营养不良
  • 免疫缺陷/免疫功能低下,例如 HIV AIDS
  • 65岁及以上的人

(Ref: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-020-0642-3.pdf, Dailymail.co.uk, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32320003/, Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2020/03/17/13993003.00547-2020


Symptoms of COVID-19 (COVID-19 的症状)

Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus.

People with these symptoms may have COVID-19:

  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Muscle pain (Myalgia)
  • Sore throat
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Nasal Congestion
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Nausea / Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea

3 Strains of SARS-CoV-2 Virus found by UK & German Scientists

COVID-19: Genetic network analysis provides ‘Snapshot’ of Pandemic origins

Researchers from Cambridge, UK, and Germany have reconstructed the early 'evolutionary paths' of SARS-CoV-2 in humans – as infection spread from Wuhan out to Europe and North America – using genetic network techniques.'

By analysing the first 160 complete virus genomes to be sequenced from human patients, the scientists found that the closest type of SARS-CoV-2 to the one discovered in bats – type ‘A’, the “original human virus genome” – was present in Wuhan, but surprisingly was not the city’s predominant virus type.

Versions of ‘A’ were seen in Chinese individuals, and Americans reported to have lived in Wuhan, and mutated versions of ‘A’ were found in patients from the USA and Australia.

Wuhan’s major virus type, ‘B’, was prevalent in patients from across East Asia. However, the variant didn’t travel much beyond the region without further mutations – implying a 'founder event' in Wuhan, or 'resistance' against this type of coronavirus outside East Asia, say researchers.

The ‘C’ variant is the major European type, found in early patients from France, Italy, Sweden and England. It is absent from the study’s Chinese mainland sample, but seen in Singapore, Hong Kong and South Korea.

(Ref: https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/covid-19-genetic-network-analysis-provides-snapshot-of-pandemic-origins)


SARS-CoV-2 virus infection of various Human tissues through ACE2 Receptors in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Tissues most affected besides the Lungs are the Small intestines, Testis, Kidney etc (in descending order).

Researchers are presently trying to identify the factors that differentiate an asymptomatic COVID patient from a COVID ICU patient who develops complications or dies from the infection. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been shown to infect a wide variety of human tissues due to the ACE2 expression in the human host cell receptor.

This may explain the common symptoms of COVID-19 such as diarrhoea, loss of smell and taste. It may also explain patients with the worst infections have comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer etc

(Ref : https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40249-020-00662-x)

As shown in the most current research, Vitamin C and Zinc complex has been found to bring down the viral load in COVID patients (Ref: Nutrients. 2020 Apr 23;12(4). pii: E1181. doi: 10.3390/nu12041181 Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections)


Ear, Nose & Throat Problems


Immune-mediated Cytokine Storm plays a role in Severe COVID-19 Infections

- Cytokine Storms may occur in Infectious Diseases (eg SARS, Dengue etc) and lead to health complications, negative medical outcomes and/or mortality.

This is a severe immune reaction in which the body releases too many cytokines into the blood too quickly. Cytokines play an important role in normal immune responses, but having a large amount of them released in the body all at once can be harmful. A cytokine storm can occur as a result of an infection, autoimmune condition, or other disease. It may also occur after treatment with some types of immunotherapy. Signs and symptoms include high fever, inflammation (redness and swelling), and severe fatigue and nausea. Sometimes, a cytokine storm may be severe or life threatening and lead to multiple organ failure.

Do You Belong in any of the Flu High Risk Groups?


Health Assessment & Screening Packages


MD International Medical Centre

Medical Services available:

  • General Practice Family Medicine - Illnesses & Infections
  • Minor Surgical Procedures
  • IV Infusion of Medications
  • Respiratory Medicine - Influenza, Colds, Cough, Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTI), Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), Sinus Infection
  • Treatment of Gastric issues, Stomach aches, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Heartburn
  • Infectious diseases & Virology - COVID-19, Dengue, Flu, Hepatitis B etc
  • Dermatology - Skin Problems (Eczema, Acne, Rash, Boils, Dermatitis, Pigmented or Dry Skin, Moles /Skin Tags /Wart Removal)
  • Dermoscopy - Non-invasive Detection of Skin Cancer, Pubic lice & Scabies
  • Treatment of Insect Bites & Stings
  • Look Younger - Botox injections
  • Eye Health / Ophthalmology - Conjunctivitis, Foreign body in the Eye etc
  • Respiratory Medicine - Cough, Wheezing, Shortness of breath
  • Ear, Nose & Throat (ENT) - Ear Wax Removal, Ear Otitis Enterna, Nose Bleed-Epistaxis, Snoring & Sleep Apnoea, Vertigo & Dizziness, Audiogram (Hearing test)
  • Pain Management, Treatment & Therapy - Arthritis, Back & Joint Pain, Migraine, Gout
  • Sports Medicine - Treatment of Sports Injuries
  • Vaccinations / Immunization - Latest Flu vaccine, Sinopharm COVID Vaccine & Booster
  • Travel Health - Travel Vaccinations & Health checks, Travellers' Diarrhoea
  • Allergy tests / Allergic Rhinitis / Asthma Management
  • Health Screening / Blood tests
  • Management of Chronic Diseases - Treating Prediabetes, Diabetes & Insulin Resistance / Hypertension
  • Heart Health - ECG Heart monitoring / High Cholesterol management / Chest pains
  • Executive Health Assessment - Pre-Employment check-up / Work Permit / Employment Pass / Employment Pass
  • Student Pass / Driving License Check-up
  • Personal Health Management - Preventative Medicine & Disease Prevention
  • Elderly / Senior Health
  • Men's Health - Erectile Dysfunction medications etc
  • Women's Health- Osteoporosis, Heavy Periods, Breast lumps, Urinary Tract Infection, Anaemia, Tremors
  • Child Health & Nutrition / Paediatrics
  • Obesity / Weight control & Safe Weight loss / Nutrition & Diet
  • Depression / Anxiety / Insomnia & Stress Management
  • Erectile Dysfunction medications / Sexually transmitted diseases (STD)

Public Health Preparedness Clinic

National University Health System Primary Care Network

Singapore Ministry of Health Chronic Disease Management Programme (CDMP)

The information provided in this website is for knowledge purposes only. It does not constitute medical advice.

Should you encounter any medical problem that you are unsure of, always consult your doctor or health care provider for assistance and medical advice.

MD International Medical Centre / MD International (Singapore) Pte Ltd

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9 Taman Serasi #01-11, Botanic Gardens View

Tel : 65-6694-1661  Fax : 65-6694 1771

Email : contact@mdimc.sg

Clinic hours:

Monday to Friday: 9am-12.30pm / 2pm-6.30pm    Saturday: 9.30am-1pm

*Last registration is 30mins before the closing time

Closed on Sundays & Public Holidays

_________

休診のおしらせ

12月23日(金)

12月24日(土)

ご不便、ご迷惑をおかけいたしますが、よろしくお願いいたします。

__________

- Cashless service with most International Insurance companies and Insurance Medical cards are accepted

- Japanese, English & Mandarin-speaking Doctors and Medical staff

Please contact us at Tel: 6694 1661 to make an appointment.

Please make an appointment for the following at Tel: 6694 1661:

* Minor Surgical Procedure

* Health Screening / Blood Test

* Dermatology Treatment

* Allergy Testing

* Pain Treatment & Therapy

* Vaccination

* Pre-Departure PCR Swab Test / Serology Testing

  • 小型外科手术
  • 健康检查/验血
  • 皮肤科治疗
  • 过敏测试
  • 疼痛管理与治疗
  • 疫苗接种
  • 出发前 PCR 拭子检测
  • 血清学检测

OUR MEDICAL TEAM

Dr Don Lau – Medical Director

MBBS (Monash), B Med Sc (Hons) (Monash), Dip Pract Derm (Wales, UK)

Fujiwara Takanori

The Chiropractic Association Singapore, Japan Chiropractic Register, American Chiropractic Association, California Chiropractic Association

Physiotherapy-trained NBCE The National Board of Chiropractic Examiners

YAMAGATA Chihiro 山懸千尋

Registered Psychologist


MD International Medical Centre

Medical Services

Minor Surgical Procedures :

·       Injection for Supraspinatus or Bicipital Tendonitis / Epicondylitis / Trigger finger / Plantar Fasciitis

·       Tendon Sheath Injection

·       Excision of small Skin tumours / Lipomas / Nail bed / Ear lobe cysts / Meibomian cyst

·       Removal of Skin sutures / Skin tags / Sebaceous cysts / Various foreign bodies / Corneal foreign body

·       Liquid Nitrogen Therapy

·       Treatment of Plantar Warts / Calluses / Corns / Ganglions

·       Splinters under nails

·       Olecranon and Pre-patellar Bursitis

·       Ear syringing

·       Embedded earring stud


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