Latest Influenza Vaccine Available now
Protects against Flu 2020 and H1N1 Viruses
Make a Vaccination Appointment at Tel : 6694 1661

Flu Subsidy Scheme eligible for Singaporeans & PRs (Pay subsidized rate of $10 for Consultation and Treatment) & Merdeka Generation /Pioneer Generation seniors (Pay subsidized rate of $5) for patients diagnosed with Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs). Please make your appointment at Tel: 6694 1661.

AIPC is part of MOH's Swab & Go Home programme. Our clinic can carry out the COVID-19 Swab test for anyone who meets the MOH medical criteria. From 1 Jul 20, all individuals aged 13 and above, diagnosed with ARI will be COVID Swab-tested. Cost of Swab test to be borne by Ministry of Health Singapore.

AIPC is part of the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance programme with MOH. If you have a fever of > 38 degrees with a cough, our clinic is able to test for COVID-19. For children below 12 years old with clinical diagnosis of HFMD (eg fever, oral ulcers, rash), our clinic can test for Hand Foot & Mouth Disease (The tests are for surveillance purposes only).

Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella).

Fight against Dengue!

AMDA International Peace Clinic, in collaboration with NEA will be giving away a FREE bottle of Mosquito Repellent each to AMDA clinic patients.


Latest COVID-19 Updates & Health Tips

COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Virus Information

Genes & Blood Type Tied to Risk of Severe COVID-19

A recent genome-wide association (GWAS) study, just published in the New England Journal of Medicine, finds that gene variants in two regions of the human genome are associated with severe COVID-19 and correspondingly carry a greater risk of COVID-19-related death.

The two stretches of DNA implicated as harbouring risks for severe COVID-19 are known to carry some intriguing genes, including one that determines blood type and others that play various roles in the immune system. In fact, the findings suggest that people with blood type A face a 50 percent greater risk of needing oxygen support or a ventilator should they become infected with the novel coronavirus. In contrast, people with blood type O appear to have about a 50 percent reduced risk of severe COVID-19.

Analysis identified two places that turned up significantly more often in the individuals with severe COVID-19 than in the healthy folks. One of them is found on chromosome 3 and covers a cluster of six genes with potentially relevant functions. For instance, this portion of the genome encodes a transporter protein known to interact with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the surface receptor that allows the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, to bind to and infect human cells. It also encodes a collection of chemokine receptors, which play a role in the immune response in the airways of our lungs.

The other association signal popped up on chromosome 9, right over the area of the genome that determines blood type. Whether you are classified as an A, B, AB, or O blood type, depends on how your genes instruct your blood cells to produce (or not produce) a certain set of proteins. The researchers did find evidence suggesting a relationship between blood type and COVID-19 risk. They noted that this area also includes a genetic variant associated with increased levels of interleukin-6, which plays a role in inflammation and may have implications for COVID-19 as well.

The risk for severe COVID-19 was 45% higher for people with type A blood than those with other blood types. It appeared to be 35% lower for people with type O.

Ref: Characteristics of and important lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Wu Z, McGoogan JM, et. al. 2020 Feb 24. [published online ahead of print]

Genomewide association study of severe Covid-19 with respiratory failure . Ellinghaus D, Degenhardt F, et. a. NEJM. June 17, 2020.


Romina Libster: The power of herd immunity

How do vaccines prevent disease — even among people too young to get vaccinated? It's a concept called "herd immunity," and it relies on a critical mass of people getting their shots to break the chain of infection. Health researcher Romina Libster shows how herd immunity contained a deadly outbreak of H1N1 in her hometown. (In Spanish with subtitles.)

COVID-19 Vaccines Update

  • Sinovac Biotech has entered Phase 3 clinical trials for its coronavirus vaccine. The vaccine has safely elicited an immune response from Phase 2 human trials. The Beijing-based company’s vaccine, called CoronaVac, has not caused severe side effects and more than 90% of people administered with the shot on a 14-day interval have induced neutralizing antibodies two weeks after inoculation.
  • Oxford COVID-19 vaccine to begin phase II/III human trials. Working with AstraZeneca, they hope to start production of the vaccine which comes in the form of an inhaler by August 2020.
  • GSK (GlaxoSmithKline) and Sanofi, two of the world’s biggest vaccine manufacturers are collaborating to develop an adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine, using Sanofi’s recombinant DNA technology. They are starting phase I clinical trials in the second half of 2020 and anticipate mass producing the vaccine by the second half of 2021.

Click here to learn more about the COVID-19 vaccine.

How do Asymptomatic COVID-19 cases affect the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Asymptomatic or Presymptomatic ‘Silent’ Transmission

Asymptomatic: people who carry the active virus in their body but never develop any symptoms

Presymptomatic: people who have been infected and are incubating the virus but don't yet show symptoms

Very mildly symptomatic: people who feel a little unwell from a COVID-19 infection but continue to come in close contact with others

Click here to learn more about Infectious Viral Shedding and the possible 'Second wave' of COVID-19 transmissions.


COVID-19 Testing

- SARS-CoV-2 PCR test vs Antibodies Serology Test

Most countries have been testing all suspected COVID-19 cases with the RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) test, which tests for the RNA of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It  can determine who is currently infected with the virus. It does not reveal the status of whether the patient was infected in the past and has since recovered from COVID-19.

The SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies test, however would be able to identify the COVID status of a population, whether they are undergoing the initial infection and fighting it (High IgM antibodies), whether they are overcoming the infection (High IgM & IgG antibodies) or that they have overcome the virus (High IgG antibodies only). The percentage of the population infected implied by the official case count and the serology survey differs widely. (Ref : The Economist – Uncertainty’s Principals, Science & Technology 2 May 20)

Most authorities are concerned about the accuracy of the SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies test, which is dependent on 2 aspects, its sensitivity (ability to detect the antibodies) and its specificity (ability to detect the correct antibodies). Within the first 7 to 10 days, the test can show a false negative because the body has not had an opportunity to mount an immune response yet. Health authorities should select the most accurate Antibodies test it can find, and retest any negative cases after 10 days to confirm the person’s COVID status.

As can be seen from the above table, both diagnostic tests can be used in tandem to better test a population, especially for asymptomatic COVID-19 cases which may continue to viral shed and create clusters that would defy contact-tracing efforts.

Ref : List of HSA Approved COVID-19 Diagnostic Tests in Singapore

World Bank Report on Testing for SARS-CoV-2 virus


Symptom Checker – How COVID-19 Compares with Other Illnesses

Information obtained from CDC & World Health Organization


Laurie Garrett: What can we learn from the 1918 flu?

In 2007, as the world worried about a possible avian flu epidemic, Laurie Garrett, author of "The Coming Plague," gave this powerful talk to a small TED University audience. Her insights from past pandemics are suddenly more relevant than ever.


Risk Factors of COVID-19 Complications

Source : Observer Research Foundation


Lung, Neurological, Liver & Kidney Diseases


Vitamins & Nutrients for a Well-functioning Immune Systems to Protect against COVID-19 & other Viral Infections

(Ref: Nutrients. 2020 Apr 23;12(4). pii: E1181. doi: 10.3390/nu12041181 Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections Calder PC1, Carr AC2, Gombart AF3, Eggersdorfer M4.

Co-infection of COVID-19 with other infectious diseases is possible.

Reduce your risk of getting sick with COVID-19

  • Make sure your vaccinations are up-to-date. People older than 65 years, and those with many underlying conditions, such as those who are immunocompromised or with significant liver disease, are recommended to receive vaccinations against influenza (Flu 2020) and pneumococcal disease (PCV). Click here for Vaccination schedules (NAIS/NCIS).
  • Do not delay getting medical care for your underlying condition because of COVID-19. AMDA International Peace Clinic has contingency MOH infection prevention protocols to protect you from getting COVID-19 if you need care for your underlying condition.
  • Continue your medications and do not change your treatment plan without talking to your doctor.
  • Make sure that you have at least a two-week supply of your chronic disease medications.
  • Call AMDA @ Tel: 6694 1661 for a medical appointment if you have any concerns about your underlying medical conditions or if you get sick. AMDA is a PHPC-accredited medical clinic. Under the MOH Swab & Go Home programme, our doctors can do a COVID-19 PCR Swab test if you meet the MOH medical crtieria.

Singapore is free from vaccine-preventable diseases like poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (whooping cough) because of our successful immunisation progamme.

Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella).

National Adult Immunisation Schedule (NAIS) Singapore @ AMDA International Peace Clinic. Make your vaccination appointment at Tel: 6694 1661.


Groups at Higher Risk for Severe Illness in a COVID-19 Infection

Comorbidities & Underlying Health Conditions in COVID-19 Patients with Complications

·       Hypertension

·       Diabetes mellitus

·       Cerebrovascular disease

·       Cardiovascular disease

·       Chronic lung diseases including COPD

·       Chronic Kidney disease

·       Asthma

·       Dementia

·       Chronic Neurological Disorders

·       Cancer

·       Rheumatological Disorder

·       Obesity

·       Smoking

·       Chronic Hematologic disease / Haemoglobin Blood Disorders

·       Liver disease / Hepatitis B Infection

·       Malnutrition

·       Immunodeficiency / Immunocompromised eg HIV AIDS

·       People aged 65 and older

(Ref: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-020-0642-3.pdf, Dailymail.co.uk, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32320003/, Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2020/03/17/13993003.00547-2020


Lung, Neurological, Liver & Kidney Diseases


Symptoms of COVID-19

Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus.

People with these symptoms may have COVID-19:

  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Muscle pain (Myalgia)
  • Sore throat
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Nasal Congestion
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Nausea / Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea

3 Strains of SARS-CoV-2 Virus found by UK & German Scientists

COVID-19: Genetic network analysis provides ‘Snapshot’ of Pandemic origins

Researchers from Cambridge, UK, and Germany have reconstructed the early 'evolutionary paths' of SARS-CoV-2 in humans – as infection spread from Wuhan out to Europe and North America – using genetic network techniques.'

By analysing the first 160 complete virus genomes to be sequenced from human patients, the scientists found that the closest type of SARS-CoV-2 to the one discovered in bats – type ‘A’, the “original human virus genome” – was present in Wuhan, but surprisingly was not the city’s predominant virus type.

Versions of ‘A’ were seen in Chinese individuals, and Americans reported to have lived in Wuhan, and mutated versions of ‘A’ were found in patients from the USA and Australia.

Wuhan’s major virus type, ‘B’, was prevalent in patients from across East Asia. However, the variant didn’t travel much beyond the region without further mutations – implying a 'founder event' in Wuhan, or 'resistance' against this type of coronavirus outside East Asia, say researchers.

The ‘C’ variant is the major European type, found in early patients from France, Italy, Sweden and England. It is absent from the study’s Chinese mainland sample, but seen in Singapore, Hong Kong and South Korea.

(Ref: https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/covid-19-genetic-network-analysis-provides-snapshot-of-pandemic-origins)


SARS-CoV-2 virus infection of various Human tissues through ACE2 Receptors in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Tissues most affected besides the Lungs are the Small intestines, Testis, Kidney etc (in descending order).

Researchers are presently trying to identify the factors that differentiate an asymptomatic COVID patient from a COVID ICU patient who develops complications or dies from the infection. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been shown to infect a wide variety of human tissues due to the ACE2 expression in the human host cell receptor.

This may explain the common symptoms of COVID-19 such as diarrhoea, loss of smell and taste. It may also explain patients with the worst infections have comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer etc

(Ref : https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40249-020-00662-x)

As shown in the most current research, Vitamin C and Zinc complex has been found to bring down the viral load in COVID patients (Ref: Nutrients. 2020 Apr 23;12(4). pii: E1181. doi: 10.3390/nu12041181 Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections)


Immune-mediated Cytokine Storm plays a role in Severe COVID-19 Infections

- Cytokine Storms may occur in Infectious Diseases (eg SARS, Dengue etc) and lead to health complications, negative medical outcomes and/or mortality.

This is a severe immune reaction in which the body releases too many cytokines into the blood too quickly. Cytokines play an important role in normal immune responses, but having a large amount of them released in the body all at once can be harmful. A cytokine storm can occur as a result of an infection, autoimmune condition, or other disease. It may also occur after treatment with some types of immunotherapy. Signs and symptoms include high fever, inflammation (redness and swelling), and severe fatigue and nausea. Sometimes, a cytokine storm may be severe or life threatening and lead to multiple organ failure.


Why the Flu Vaccination is Important

during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Asymptomatic patients may not display no symptoms of illness. Vulnerable people should get vaccinated against Influenza as the stop gap until the COVID vaccine is found. The Flu vaccine would protect susceptible people from, as well as exclude the Flu 2020 and H1N1 viruses should they start to show URTI or ARI symptoms.

- Influenza 2020 Vaccine

The latest 2020 Influenza Vaccine is now available. It protects against the Flu 2020 and H1N1 Viruses. In the event that a person displays flu-like symptoms after the Flu vaccination, both Flu 2020 and H1N1 may be excluded in his diagnosis, and treatment can be sought quickly should the patient have contracted COVID-19.

Ministry of Health Safety protocols are adhered to at all times for the safe vaccination of you and your family.

* Latest COVID-19 Updates & Health Tips

* Importance of Keeping your Vaccinations Up-to-date

Do You Belong in any of the Flu High Risk Groups?


Infectious Diseases


Accredited Medical Clinic - Singapore MOH Chronic Disease Management Programme (CDMP)

The information provided in this website is for knowledge purposes only. It does not constitute medical advice.

Should you encounter any medical problem that you are unsure of, always consult your doctor or health care provider for assistance and medical advice.

Dr Don V H LAU   Chairperson of AMDA Singapore

MBBS (Monash), B.Med.Sc.(Hons) (Monash), Grad.Dip.Derm.(Wales,UK)

AMDA International Peace Clinic is a part of AMDA (Association of Medical Doctors of Asia). We are part of the network of AMDA Peace Clinics & Friendship Hospitals around the world. We dedicate part of our profits to AMDA's worldwide Emergency Disaster Aid Relief missions, Social Development projects and Vaccination programmes.

AMDA, founded in 1984 has carried out more than 200 medical missions, contributing medical expertise and supplies in 65 countries over the last 36 years. AMDA holds General Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic & Social Council (UN ECOSOC) since 1995.

AMDA International Chapters   Afghanistan Albania Bosnia & Herzegovina Bangladesh Bolivia Cambodia Canada Colombia Guyana Haiti Honduras India Indonesia Kazakhstan Korea Kosovo Malaysia Mongolia Nepal New Zealand Pakistan Peru Philippines Sakha Republic Singapore Sri Lanka Sudan Taiwan Uganda Vietnam Zambia

AMDA International Peace Clinic

9 Taman Serasi #01-11, Botanic Garden View

Tel : 65-6694-1661  Fax : 65-6694 1771

Email : info@amda.sg

Clinic hours:

Monday to Friday: 9am-12.30pm / 2pm-6.30pm    Saturday: 9.30am-1pm

*Last registration is 30mins before the closing time

Closed on Sundays & Public Holidays

- Cashless service with most International Insurance companies and Insurance Medical cards are accepted

- Japanese, German, French & Mandarin-speaking Doctors and Medical staff.

Please contact us at Tel: 66941661 to make an appointment.

OUR MEDICAL TEAM

Dr Don Lau – Medical Director

MBBS (Monash), B Med Sc (Hons) (Monash), Dip Pract Derm (Wales, UK)

Chairperson of AMDA Singapore


Dr Timothy Hart - Resident Doctor

MD (Duke-NUS), PhD (Glasgow), M Sc (UK), DLSHTM, B Med Sc (Birmingham)


Takanori Fujiwara DC

Doctor of Chiropractic Southern California University of Health Science

The Chiropractic Association Singapore, Japan Chiropractic Register, American Chiropractic Association, California Chiropractic Association

Physiotherapy-trained NBCE The National Board of Chiropractic Examiners

Medical Conditions Treatable with Chiropractic:  

  • Head & Neck – Neckaches/ Spondylosis/ Wry Neck/ Whiplash/ Headaches/ Migraine/ Facial Palsy
  • Back – Back Strain/ Slipped Disc/ Scoliosis/ Sciatica/ Spondylosis/ Spondylolisthesis/ Spondylolysis
  • Shoulder – Frozen Shoulder/ Rotator Cuff Tear/ Impingement Syndrome
  • Elbow – Tennis Elbow/ Golf Elbow
  • Hip / Knee – Anterior Knee Pain/ Runner’s Knee/ Meniscus Injury/ Ligament Injury
  • Foot – Plantar Fasciitis/ Heel Pain/ Metatarsalgia
  • Joint – Arthritis/ Cartilage Wear & Tear/ Osteoarthritis
  • Ligament – Sprains/ ACL Laxity/ Ankle Sprain
  • Muscle – Strains/ ITB Tightness/ Hamstring Tear
  • Tendons – Tendonitis/ Repetitive Strain Injury/ Tendinopathy
  • Sports Injuries
  • Obesity – Exercise & Meal Planning 
  • Post Operation/ Hospitalization
  • Fibromyalgia

Dr Lee Sao Bing – Opthalmologist (in-house Specialist)

MBBS, MMed(Ophth), FRCSEd(Ophth), MD, FAMS


Dr Pang Yoke Teen – ENT (Visiting Consultant)

FRCS (ORL), FRCS(EDIN), (FRCSGLASG), FAMS, MBBS

AMDA International Peace Clinic

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AMDA International Peace Clinic dedicates part of our profits to AMDA's Worldwide Emergency Disaster Aid Relief missions, Social Development projects & Vaccination programmes.

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Founder & President of AMDA - Association of Medical Doctors of Asia

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