Chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function. Your kidneys filter wastes and excess fluids from your blood, which are then excreted in your urine.
When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in your body.
In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, you may have few signs or symptoms. Chronic kidney disease may not become apparent until your kidney function is significantly impaired.
Possible Kidney Health problems & issues include:
Please seek Medical attention as soon as possible if you are unsure of you or your family's health condition.
Kidney Health - What does my Urine Colour mean?
Sometimes, urine can also foam up when it's concentrated. Your urine is more concentrated if you have not had much water to drink and you are dehydrated.
However, foamy urine can also indicate that you have too much of a protein, such as albumin, in your urine, which is not normal. The protein in your urine reacts with the air to create foam. If kidneys are releasing protein into the urine, they are not working properly.
Water-electrolyte imbalance, is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
Electrolytes play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis in the body.
They help to regulate heart and neurological function, fluid balance, oxygen delivery, acid–base balance and much more.
The symptoms of electrolyte imbalance are based on which of the electrolyte levels are affected.
If your blood test results indicate an altered potassium, magnesium, sodium, or calcium levels, you may experience muscle spasm, weakness, twitching, or convulsions.
Kidney Stones Risk Factors
Kidney stones are a common kidney problem.
Kidney stones form in your kidneys. As stones move into your ureters — the thin tubes that allow urine to pass from your kidneys to your bladder — signs and symptoms can result. Signs and symptoms of kidney stones can include severe pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills and blood in your urine.
Kidney stones Risk factors - Nephrology
Treatment for Kidney stones - Ultrasound Shock wave
Sinopharm COVID-19 & Latest Influenza Vaccines (Protects against Flu and H1N1 Viruses) / Pre-Departure COVID-19 PCR Swab & Serology Tests for Travellers, Supervised Antigen Rapid Test (ART) done from your home, Pre-Event COVID Testing and Serology Testing to Certify Vaccination status. Make your Appointment at Tel: 6694 1661
Flu Subsidy Scheme eligible for Singaporeans & PRs (Pay subsidized rate of $10 for Consultation and Treatment) & Merdeka Generation /Pioneer Generation seniors (Pay subsidized $5) for patients with Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs).
Chronic Kidney Disease - Symptoms & Risk factors
Causes of Acute Kidney Failure - Signs & Symptoms
Child Urinary Tract Infection
A Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as a kidney infection (pyelonephritis).
Symptoms from a lower urinary tract infection include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder.
Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI. Rarely the urine may appear bloody. In the very old and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non-specific.
Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella).
Part of MOH's Swab & Go Home programme. Our clinic can carry out the COVID-19 Swab test for anyone who meets the MOH medical criteria. All individuals aged 13 and above, diagnosed with ARI will be COVID Swab-tested. Cost of Swab test to be borne by Ministry of Health Singapore.
Part of the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance programme with MOH. If you have a fever of > 38 degrees with a cough, our clinic is able to test for COVID-19. For children below 12 years old with clinical diagnosis of HFMD (eg fever, oral ulcers, rash), our clinic can test for Hand Foot & Mouth Disease (The tests are for surveillance purposes only).
Causes of Glomerulonephritis Spectrum - Nephrology
Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys (glomeruli). Glomeruli remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream and pass them into your urine. Glomerulonephritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily within your kidneys, causing your kidneys to enlarge and lose function over time.
Cysts are noncancerous round sacs containing fluid. The cysts vary in size, and they can grow very large.
Pyelonephritis - Symptoms & Causes
Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection. Symptoms most often include fever and flank tenderness. Other symptoms may include nausea, burning with urination, and frequent urination. Complications may include pus around the kidney, sepsis, or kidney failure.
Other possible Nephrology Syndromes
Less common causes of Back pain may be due to Renal disease relating to the kidney, such as Pyelonephritis or Kidney stones.
Sinopharm COVID-19 Vaccine in Singapore
Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV vaccine has now been approved for use by private clinics in Singapore against the COVID-19 virus under the Special Access Route. It is the first China-made vaccine to be approved by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
To date, more than a billion doses of the Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV have been administered. The vaccine has also been approved for use in over 50 countries around the world.
If you would like to receive the Sinopharm vaccine or booster, please make your appointment at MD Int'l Medical Centre at Tel: 6694 1661.
Effects of COVID-19 on the Brain
COVID Symptoms to watch out for:
SARS-CoV-2 Virus Infection of Human Organ Tissues through Cell ACE-2 Receptors:
Ministry of Health Recommendation :
For recovered persons who had not completed a primary series before infection:
Vitamins & Nutrients for a Well-functioning Immune System to Protect against COVID-19 & other Viral Infections
(Ref: Nutrients. 2020 Apr 23;12(4). pii: E1181. doi: 10.3390/nu12041181 Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections Calder PC1, Carr AC2, Gombart AF3, Eggersdorfer M4.
Healthy Diets for Optimal Health
Groups at Higher Risk for Severe Illness in a COVID-19 Infection
Comorbidities & Underlying Health Conditions in COVID-19 Patients with Complications
(Ref: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-020-0642-3.pdf, Dailymail.co.uk, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32320003/, Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2020/03/17/13993003.00547-2020
Asymptomatic patients may not display no symptoms of illness. Vulnerable people should get vaccinated against Influenza as the stop gap until the COVID vaccine is found. The Flu vaccine would protect susceptible people from, as well as exclude the Flu and H1N1 viruses should they start to show URTI or ARI symptoms.
- Latest Influenza Vaccine
The latest Influenza Vaccine is now available. It protects against the Flu and H1N1 Viruses. In the event that a person displays flu-like symptoms after the Flu vaccination, both Flu and H1N1 may be excluded in his diagnosis, and treatment can be sought quickly should the patient have contracted COVID-19.
Ministry of Health Safety protocols are adhered to at all times for the safe vaccination of you and your family.
Singapore is free from vaccine-preventable diseases like poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (whooping cough) because of our successful immunisation progamme.
National Adult Immunisation Schedule (NAIS) Singapore @ MD
International Medical Centre. Make your vaccination appointment at
Tel: 6694 1661.
MD International Medical Centre
Medical Services available :
Public Health Preparedness Clinic
National University Health System Primary Care Network
Singapore Ministry of Health Chronic Disease Management Programme (CDMP)
The information provided in this website is for knowledge purposes only. It does not constitute medical advice.
Should you encounter any medical problem that you are unsure of, always consult your doctor or health care provider for assistance and medical advice.
MD International (Singapore) Pte Ltd
9 Taman Serasi #01-11, Botanic Gardens View
Tel : 65-6694-1661 Fax : 65-6694 1771
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Monday to Friday: 9am-12.30pm / 2pm-6.30pm Saturday: 9.30am-1pm
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Please contact us at Tel: 6694 1661 to make an appointment.
Please make an appointment for the following at Tel: 6694 1661:
* Supervised COVID ART Test / Pre-Event Test
* Pre-Departure PCR Swab Test / Serology Testing
MBBS (Monash), B Med Sc (Hons) (Monash), Dip Pract Derm (Wales, UK)
The Chiropractic Association Singapore, Japan Chiropractic Register, American Chiropractic Association, California Chiropractic Association
Physiotherapy-trained NBCE The National Board of Chiropractic Examiners
YAMAGATA Chihiro 山懸千尋
· Injection for Supraspinatus or Bicipital Tendonitis / Epicondylitis / Trigger finger / Plantar Fasciitis
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· Removal of Skin sutures / Skin tags / Sebaceous cysts / Various foreign bodies / Corneal foreign body
· Liquid Nitrogen Therapy
· Treatment of Plantar Warts / Calluses / Corns / Ganglions
· Splinters under nails
· Olecranon and Pre-patellar Bursitis
· Ear syringing
· Embedded earring stud
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