What are the symptoms and causes of Diabetes, Prediabetes or Insulin resistance? Can thiese lifestyle diseases and chronic health conditions be reversed? What are the health risks of being hyperglycemic?
What is Diabetes Mellitus? 什么是糖尿病?
Diabetes occurs when the body has difficulty processing sugar normally, due to issues with a hormone called insulin.
There are two types of diabetes :
In type 2 diabetes, there are usually deficits in both the production and response of the body to insulin. Genetics does play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes, but lifestyle and particularly the amount of sugar and carbohydrates in the diet, are very important.
What is Prediabetes? 什么是糖尿病前期？
Because type 2 diabetes develops over the course of many years, there is a phase called prediabetes, in which the body’s insulin response to sugar is still present, but not as efficient as normal. When the cells in the body do not respond as well to insulin as they should, this is called “Insulin resistance”.
During prediabetes, if we test the blood, we will find higher levels of sugar than normal, even a long time after eating, but not at high enough levels to be called diabetes yet. This is called “impaired fasting glucose”.
The reason that it is important to identify people with prediabetes is that there is still time to reverse the illness before it becomes full diabetes. Even if it does not develop fully into diabetes, someone with prediabetes is at a much higher risk of heart disease.
Causes & Risks of Insulin Resistance
Insulin resistance is part of the “metabolic syndrome”, which involves high blood pressure, heart disease, liver disease and weight gain.
Weight loss and healthy diet are able to return the blood glucose back to normal and this can be demonstrated with follow up with your family doctor.
Type 2 diabetes affects 1 in 10 people in Singapore and is on the rise. It is caused by a reduction in the body’s ability to process sugar, which is controlled by a hormone called insulin.
When there is not enough insulin, or it doesn’t work properly in the body, this results in high blood sugar levels. Diabetes develops over a long time and there is a period where there is evidence of higher blood sugar than normal, but not at high enough levels to be diabetes (Prediabetes).
What does the HbA1c test in your blood test results mean?
The hemoglobin A1c test tells you your average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months. It is also called HbA1c glycated hemoglobin test or glycohemoglobin. People who have diabetes need this test regularly to see if their levels are staying within range.
Long Term Risks & Complications of Diabetes on your body
Angiopathy - Disease of the arteries, veins, and capillaries. The most prevalent angiopathy is diabetic angiopathy, a common complication of chronic diabetes.
Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD) - This blood circulation disorder causes the blood vessels outside of your heart and brain to narrow, block, or spasm. This can happen in your arteries or veins. PVD typically causes pain and fatigue, often in your legs, and especially during exercise.
Retinopathy - This is a disease of the retina which results in impairment or loss of vision. Diabetic Retinopathy is caused by damage to the blood vessels of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina). This can eventually lead to blindness. The longer you have diabetes and the less controlled your blood sugar is, the more likely you are to develop this eye complication.
Nephropathy - This is a disease of the kidneys caused by damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys that clean the blood. People who have had diabetes for a long time may develop nephropathy.
Neuropathy - Neuropathy is damage or dysfunction of one or more nerves that typically results in numbness, tingling, muscle weakness and pain in the affected area. Neuropathies frequently start in your hands and feet, but other parts of your body can be affected too.
Diabetic Infections - The most common sites are the skin and urinary tract. Dermatologic infections that occur with increased frequency in patients with diabetes include staphylococcal follicular skin infections, superficial fungal infections, cellulitis, erysipelas, and oral or genital candidal infections.
High blood sugar from diabetes can affect the body's immune system, impairing the ability of white blood cells to come to the site of an infection, stay in the infected area, and kill microorganisms.
People with high blood sugar from diabetes can be more severely affected by common infections, such as influenza and pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This is why immunizations for influenza (the flu) and pneumococcal disease (ie PCV) are recommended for people who have diabetes. Refer below for the National Adult Immunization Schedule (NAIS) Singapore.
Complications of Diabetes
Diabetes Symptoms, Monitoring, Diet, Treatment & Health tips
Make your Appointment at Tel: 6694 1661
Diabetic Neuropathy Easy Self Assessment
Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if you have diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerves throughout your body. Diabetic neuropathy most often damages nerves in your legs and feet.
You may use a piece of stiff fishing line string to do this easy Diabetic foot self test. If you have lost sensation in any of the spots indicated in the above diagram, seek medical advice from your family doctor to get a professional diagnosis and medical intervention.
'An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.'
Health Assessment & Screening Packages
Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella)
Part of the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance programme with MOH. If you have a fever of > 38 degrees with a cough, our clinic is able to test for COVID-19. For children below 12 years old with clinical diagnosis of HFMD (eg fever, oral ulcers, rash), our clinic can test for Hand Foot & Mouth Disease (The tests are for surveillance purposes only).
Healthy Diets for Optimal Health
Source : Observer Research Foundation
Lung, Neurological, Liver & Kidney Diseases
COVID-19 Sinopharm Vaccine & Booster
Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV vaccine has now been approved for use by private clinics in Singapore against the COVID-19 virus under the Special Access Route. It is the first China-made vaccine to be approved by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
To date, more than a billion doses of the Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV have been administered. The vaccine has also been approved for use in over 50 countries around the world.
Effects of COVID-19 on the Brain
COVID Symptoms to watch out for:
SARS-CoV-2 Virus Infection of Human Organ Tissues through Cell ACE-2 Receptors:
Singapore Ministry of Health Recommendation:
For recovered persons who had not completed a primary series before infection:
Co-infection of COVID-19 with other infectious diseases is possible
Reduce your risk of getting sick with COVID-19
Pain Relief Management & Treatment, Vaccinations, Health Screening, COVID & Allergy Testing, Dermatology Treatments, Minor Surgical Procedures
Asymptomatic patients may display no symptoms of illness. Vulnerable people should get vaccinated against Influenza which protects susceptible people from, as well as exclude the Flu and H1N1 viruses should they start to show URTI or ARI symptoms.
a. Vaccination decreases the risk of co-infection with COVID-19.
b. Vaccination reduces the burden of respiratory illnesses in the healthcare system.
The latest Influenza Vaccine is now available. It protects against the Flu and H1N1 Viruses. Ministry of Health Safety protocols are adhered to at all times for the safe vaccination of you and your family.
NAIS & NCIS - Singapore is free from vaccine-preventable diseases like poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (whooping cough) because of our successful immunisation progamme.
National Adult Immunisation Schedule (NAIS) Singapore @ MD International Medical Centre. Make your vaccination appointment at Tel: 6694 1661.
Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella).
MD International Medical Centre
Medical Services available:
Public Health Preparedness Clinic
National University Health System Primary Care Network
Singapore Ministry of Health Chronic Disease Management Programme (CDMP)
The information provided in this website is for knowledge purposes only. It does not constitute medical advice.
Should you encounter any medical problem that you are unsure of, always consult your doctor or health care provider for assistance and medical advice.
MD International Medical Centre / MD International (Singapore) Pte Ltd
9 Taman Serasi #01-11, Botanic Gardens View
Tel : 65-6694-1661 Fax : 65-6694 1771
Email : email@example.com
Monday to Friday: 9am-12.30pm / 2pm-6.30pm Saturday: 9.30am-1pm
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Closed on Sundays & Public Holidays
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- Japanese, English & Mandarin-speaking Doctors and Medical staff
Please contact us at Tel: 6694 1661 to make an appointment.
Please make an appointment for the following at Tel: 6694 1661:
* Pre-Departure PCR Swab Test / Serology Testing
MBBS (Monash), B Med Sc (Hons) (Monash), Dip Pract Derm (Wales, UK)
The Chiropractic Association Singapore, Japan Chiropractic Register, American Chiropractic Association, California Chiropractic Association
Physiotherapy-trained NBCE The National Board of Chiropractic Examiners
YAMAGATA Chihiro 山懸千尋
· Injection for Supraspinatus or Bicipital Tendonitis / Epicondylitis / Trigger finger / Plantar Fasciitis
· Tendon Sheath Injection
· Excision of small Skin tumours / Lipomas / Nail bed / Ear lobe cysts / Meibomian cyst
· Removal of Skin sutures / Skin tags / Sebaceous cysts / Various foreign bodies / Corneal foreign body
· Liquid Nitrogen Therapy
· Treatment of Plantar Warts / Calluses / Corns / Ganglions
· Splinters under nails
· Olecranon and Pre-patellar Bursitis
· Ear syringing
· Embedded earring stud
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