Lung Diseases
- Symptoms & Causes

Comprehensive information about possible lung problems and pulmonary health issues:

  • Shortness of Breath / Dyspnoea
  • Abnormalities in Rate & Rhythm of Breathing
  • Respiratory Tract Infection - Bronchiolitis
  • Causes of Chest Pain
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Symptoms
  • Symptoms of Pneumonia
  • Causes of Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
  • Types of Lung Cancer
  • Pulmonary Embolism Risk Factors
  • Pneumothorax (Life-threatening)
  • Tuberculosis (TB) Mycobacterium

Please seek Medical attention as soon as possible if you are unsure of you or your family's health condition.

Shortness of Breath or Dyspnoea

Shortness of breath, or Dyspnoea, is a symptoms which is associated with a very large number of conditions. It can be long term and chronic, or sudden onset and acute.

Dyspnoea during light excercise can be a sign of heart failure, while sudden onset of chest pain and shortness of breath can indicate a heart attack or acute heart issue.

People with chronic obstructive lung disease have almost constant shortness of breath, while those with asthma have severe periodic dyspnoea often associated with wheezing.

Anaemia (low red blood cells) can cause chronic breathlessness associated with tiredness and severe allergic reactions can cause sudden breathlessness with a rash or throat contstriction. Whatever the cause of breathlessness, it can indicate a serious medical issue and should be assessed by a doctor as soon as possible.

Abnormalities in Rate & Rhythm of Breathing

Respiratory Tract Infection - Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is a relatively uncommon, but serious reaction of the lungs to common respiratory viruses. It is seen mostly in children and infants, but can occur in adults, particularly the elderly, or those with asthma, or who smoke. It causes inflammation and congestion in the small airways (bronchioles) of the lung. Bronchiolitis is almost always caused by a virus.

It is caused when the body’s inflammatory response to the virus causes damage to the patient’s lung tissue. This can result in inefficient breathing, wheezing and shortness of breath. The symptoms may last for longer than a normal flu-like illness and be distressing, but usually resolve completely. Inhaled medicines may help relieve symptoms. It is important to consult your doctor for any development of severe shortness of breath or wheezing.

Sinopharm COVID-19 & Latest Influenza Vaccines (Protects against Flu and H1N1 Viruses) / Serology Tests for Travellers & Serology Testing to Certify Vaccination status. Make your Appointment at Tel: 6694 1661

Pain Relief Management & Treatment, Vaccinations, Health Screening, COVID & Allergy Testing, Dermatology Treatments, Minor Surgical Procedures

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Symptoms

It is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production. COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it typically worsens over time.

Symptoms of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi cause it. The infection causes inflammation in the air sacs in your lungs, which are called alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe.

We use the term pneumonia to describe severe infections of the lung. These are mostly bacterial and in most cases can be seen on an X-ray.

A patient with pneumonia often has more serious symptoms, such as high fever, breathlessness, production of thick green or yellow phlegm and a deep or painful cough.

Although most lung infections are due to viruses, are mild and resolve after a few days, pneumonia is more severe and in the elderly or at risk groups, may even require hosptialisation. If your doctor is concerned that you have signs of pnuemonia, you will most likely be prescribed antibiotics to treat a bacterial infection and closely monitored until you recover.

Health Assessment & Screening Packages

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

It is a type of respiratory failure characterized by rapid onset of widespread inflammation in the lungs. Symptoms include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, and bluish skin coloration.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a condition which can occur for a number of reasons, but especially following severe infections such as SARS or COVID-19. Patients develop extreme shortness of breath, as the lungs fill with fluid. This can occur rapidly, a few days after infection.

As the lungs become less able to extract oxygen, patients become confused and blood pressure often falls. These patients require mechanical ventilation and there is a high mortality. The risk of severe complications such as ARDS highlights the importance of seeking medical attention early for any signs of severe infection.

Types of Lung Cancer

Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella).

Part of MOH's Swab & Go Home programme. Our clinic can carry out the COVID-19 Swab test for anyone who meets the MOH medical criteria. All individuals aged 13 and above, diagnosed with ARI will be COVID Swab-tested. Cost of Swab test to be borne by Ministry of Health Singapore.

Part of the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance programme with MOH. If you have a fever of > 38 degrees with a cough, our clinic is able to test for COVID-19. For children below 12 years old with clinical diagnosis of HFMD (eg fever, oral ulcers, rash), our clinic can test for Hand Foot & Mouth Disease (The tests are for surveillance purposes only).

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) &

Pulmonary Embolism (PE) Risk Factors

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when blood pools in the large, deep veins of the legs and starts to clot within the veins. This can result in reduced blood flow within the leg, causing swelling, redness and severe pain. DVTs often occur during periods of immobility, such as when on a long-haul flight. Simple excercising of the lower leg can help to prevent DVT in such situations.

One life-threatening complication of DVT is Pulmonary Embolism (PE). Pulmonary Embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism). The PE causes the affected part of the lung to stop working and this can result in low levels of oxygen in the blood

PE causes chest pain particularly upon breathing in, breathlessness and sweating and even coughing up blood. Because of the association with DVT, someone who has these symptoms and recently went on a long haul flight, has had a long period of bed rest, or recently given birth, or who has cancer, should seek immediate medical attention.

Life-threatening Pneumothorax

A Pneumothorax is a collapsed lung. A Pneumothorax occurs when air leaks into the space between your lung and chest wall, which means that the lung is no longer able to inflate.. This air pushes on the outside of your lung and makes it collapse. Pneumothorax can be a complete lung collapse or a collapse of only a portion of the lung. This is often as a result of trauma.

Tuberculosis (TB) Mycobacterium

TB is a disease caused by bacteria that are spread through the air from person to person. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. People infected with TB bacteria who are not sick can take medication to prevent TB disease from developing in the future.

Lung, Neurological, Liver & Kidney Diseases

Chest X-rays

Chest X-rays are done to look at the structure of the lung. They can detect a number of specific anatomical defects indicating lung disease.Pleaural effusion is the build up of fluid in the same cavity, which also results in the lung being unable to inflate properly. This is usually due to infection, or other chronic disease.

Chest X-rays can also detect fluid collection inside the lungs themselves, leading to a diagnsosis of pneumonia and can tell if the lung has collapsed, or deviated. Some lung illnesses such as emphysema result in obvious holes in the normal lung tissue, but chest X-rays are also able to detect abnormal accumulation of solid tissue, such as is seen in fibrosis or in lung cancer. Often early lung cancer appears only as small nodules of tissue and X-rays must be repeated over time to monitor whether these nodules grow or stay the same shape.

Pneumonia / Emphysema - Lung Xrays / CT

Pulmonary Edema / Embolism & Congestive Cardiac Failure - Lung Xrays / CT

Pneumothorax & Lung Cancer Carcinoma - Lung Xrays / CT

Lung Cancer Metastases - Lung Xrays / CT

Healthy Aging

Sinopharm COVID-19 Vaccine in Singapore

Sinopharm COVID-19 Vaccine is now available @ MD International Medical Centre. Make a Vaccination or Booster Appointment at Tel: 6694 1661. Learn more about Sinopharm here.

Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV vaccine has now been approved for use by private clinics in Singapore against the COVID-19 virus under the Special Access Route. It is the first China-made vaccine to be approved by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

To date, more than a billion doses of the Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV have been administered. The vaccine has also been approved for use in over 50 countries around the world.

Inactivated vaccines are a tried-and-tested form of vaccine technology which is used in other well-established vaccines, such as the Flu and Hepatitis B vaccines.

If you would like to receive the Sinopharm vaccine or booster, please make your appointment at MD Int'l Medical Centre at Tel: 6694 1661.

Effects of COVID-19 on the Brain

COVID Symptoms to watch out for:

SARS-CoV-2 Virus Infection of Human Organ  Tissues through Cell ACE-2 Receptors:

Ministry of Health Recommendation :

  • For persons who have already completed their Primary series with mRNA vaccines and are recommended to get a booster, but are unable to take another dose of mRNA vaccines for medical reasons, they may boost using one dose of Sinopharm vaccine. The booster should be taken six months after mRNA dose 2 (M-M-S).
  • For persons who are unable to take the the 2nd dose of mRNA vaccines for medical reasons, they may complete their vaccination with the Sinopharm vaccine. 2 doses of the Sinopharm vaccine is recommended to complete the Primary series. The 2nd Sinopharm dose  should be taken 28 days after the 1st Sinopharm dose (M-S-S).

For recovered persons who had not completed a primary series before infection:

  • For persons who have recovered from a COVID-19 infection but received 1 dose or none of COVID-19 vaccination prior, they may receive 2 doses of the Sinopharm vaccine (28 days interval between doses), 3 months after the date of infection to complete a primary vaccination series (Recovered-S-S or S-Recovered-S-S or M-Recovered-S-S).
  • For persons who have recovered from a COVID-19 infection and had received 2 doses of Sinovac or Sinopharm vaccines prior, they may receive 1 dose of Sinopharm after 3 months from the date of infection to complete a primary vaccination series (S-S-Recovered-S).

Singapore is free from vaccine-preventable diseases like poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (whooping cough) because of our successful immunisation progamme.

Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella).

National Adult Immunisation Schedule (NAIS) Singapore @ MD International Medical Centre. Make your vaccination appointment at Tel: 6694 1661.

Infectious Diseases

Groups at Higher Risk for Severe Illness in a COVID-19 Infection

Comorbidities & Underlying Health Conditions in COVID-19 Patients with Complications

·       Hypertension

·       Diabetes mellitus

·       Cerebrovascular disease

·       Cardiovascular disease

·       Chronic lung diseases including COPD

·       Chronic Kidney disease

·       Asthma

·       Dementia

·       Chronic Neurological Disorders

·       Cancer

·       Rheumatological Disorder

·       Obesity

·       Smoking

·       Chronic Hematologic disease / Haemoglobin Blood Disorders

·       Liver disease / Hepatitis B Infection

·       Malnutrition

·       Immunodeficiency / Immunocompromised eg HIV AIDS

·       People aged 65 and older

(Ref:,,, Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis

Pain Relief Management & Treatment, Vaccinations, Health Screening, COVID & Allergy Testing, Dermatology Treatments, Minor Surgical Procedures

Asymptomatic patients may not display no symptoms of illness. Vulnerable people should get vaccinated against Influenza as the stop gap until the COVID vaccine is found. The Flu vaccine would protect susceptible people from, as well as exclude the Flu and H1N1 viruses should they start to show URTI or ARI symptoms.

- Latest Influenza Vaccine

The latest Influenza Vaccine is now available. It protects against the Flu and H1N1 Viruses. In the event that a person displays flu-like symptoms after the Flu vaccination, both Flu and H1N1 may be excluded in his diagnosis, and treatment can be sought quickly should the patient have contracted COVID-19.

Ministry of Health Safety protocols are adhered to at all times for the safe vaccination of you and your family.

* Latest COVID-19 Updates & Health Tips

* Importance of Keeping your Vaccinations Up-to-date

Pain Management

MD International Medical Centre

Medical Services available :

Public Health Preparedness Clinic

National University Health System Primary Care Network

Singapore Ministry of Health Chronic Disease Management Programme (CDMP)

The information provided in this website is for knowledge purposes only. It does not constitute medical advice.

Should you encounter any medical problem that you are unsure of, always consult your doctor or health care provider for assistance and medical advice.

MD International Medical Centre / MD International (Singapore) Pte Ltd

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9 Taman Serasi #01-11, Botanic Gardens View

Tel : 65-6694-1661  Fax : 65-6694 1771

Email :

Clinic hours:

Monday to Friday: 9am-12.30pm / 2pm-6.30pm    Saturday: 9.30am-1pm

*Last registration is 30mins before the closing time

Closed on Sundays & Public Holidays

- Cashless service with most International Insurance companies and Insurance Medical cards are accepted

- Japanese & Mandarin-speaking Doctors and Medical staff

Please contact us at Tel: 6694 1661 to make an appointment.

Please make an appointment for the following at Tel: 6694 1661:

* Minor Surgical Procedure

* Health Screening / Blood Test

* Dermatology Treatment

* Allergy Testing

* Pain Management & Treatment

* Vaccination

* Supervised COVID ART Test / Pre-Event Test

* Pre-Departure PCR Swab Test / Serology Testing


Dr Don Lau – Medical Director

MBBS (Monash), B Med Sc (Hons) (Monash), Dip Pract Derm (Wales, UK)

Fujiwara Takanori

The Chiropractic Association Singapore, Japan Chiropractic Register, American Chiropractic Association, California Chiropractic Association

Physiotherapy-trained NBCE The National Board of Chiropractic Examiners

YAMAGATA Chihiro 山懸千尋

Registered Psychologist

MD International Medical Centre

Medical Services

Minor Surgical Procedures :

·       Injection for Supraspinatus or Bicipital Tendonitis / Epicondylitis / Trigger finger / Plantar Fasciitis

·       Tendon Sheath Injection

·       Excision of small Skin tumours / Lipomas / Nail bed / Ear lobe cysts / Meibomian cyst

·       Removal of Skin sutures / Skin tags / Sebaceous cysts / Various foreign bodies / Corneal foreign body

·       Liquid Nitrogen Therapy

·       Treatment of Plantar Warts / Calluses / Corns / Ganglions

·       Splinters under nails

·       Olecranon and Pre-patellar Bursitis

·       Ear syringing

·       Embedded earring stud

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