Dermatology Skin Conditions

TMJ Disorder - Treatment @ MDIMC

TMJ Jaw pain Treatment

Temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) disorder is the most common cause of jaw pain.

BOTOX® is used as an alternative treatment for TMJ disorders and associated jaw tension and pain. When injected into facial muscles afflicted with soreness and discomfort, BOTOX® relieves TMJ and jaw pain for many patients.

Various Treatable Skin Conditions


Moles are a common type of skin growth. They often appear as small, dark brown spots and are caused by clusters of pigmented cells. Moles generally appear during childhood and adolescence. Most people have 10 to 40 moles, some of which may change in appearance or fade away over time.


A wart is a small growth with a rough texture that can appear anywhere on the body. It can look like a solid blister or a small cauliflower. Warts are caused by viruses in the human papillomavirus (HPV) family. The appearance of a wart depends on its location on the body and the thickness of the skin.

Water Warts

 Liquid Nitrogen Treatment >

Molluscum contagiosum sometimes called water warts, is a viral infection of the skin that results in small, raised, pink lesions with a dimple in the center. They may occasionally be itchy or sore. They may occur singularly or in groups.

Water warts is a frequent viral infection in the child's skin. The illness is contagious. They appear on the child's chest, back, arms or legs. The illness is benign and disappears by itself, but it can take several years.

Water warts or Molluscum Contagiosum on child's buttocks (above) can be treated (right) with CO2 Laser, the Cautery machine or by Nitrogen-freezing.

Fungal Nail Infection

Nail fungus, also known as onychomycosis or tinea unguium, is a common condition that begins as a white or yellow spot under the tip of your fingernail or toenail.

As the fungal infection goes deeper, nail fungus may cause your nail to discolor, thicken and crumble at the edge.


Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus. The disease results in a characteristic skin rash that forms small, itchy blisters, which eventually scab over.

It usually starts on the chest, back and face. It then spreads to the rest of the body. Other symptoms may include fever, tiredness and headaches. Symptoms usually last five to seven days.

Shingles & Nerve Pain

Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a painful blistering rash caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox (the varicella-zoster virus).

If you have chickenpox, the virus that caused it may live on after the spots have cleared, in an inactive state, in the nerves linked to your spinal cord. The virus becomes active again when there is a temporary decrease in the body’s resistance. It will then multiply and move along the nerve fibres to the skin supplied by them. Shingles then appears in the skin.

Most attacks of shingles occur for no obvious reason, but an attack is most likely if you are elderly, under stress, have an illness that weakens the immune system such as cancer or AIDS.

Shingles Causes & Symptoms - Treatment @ MDIMC

Lichen Simplex Chronicus Treatment

Result after 2 weeks of treatment >

Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) is a localized, well-circumscribed area of thickened skin (lichenification) resulting from repeated rubbing, itching, and scratching of the skin. It can occur on normal skin of individuals with atopic, seborrheic, contact dermatitis, or psoriasis.

Non-Healing Mouth or Tongue Ulcers

Non-healing ulcers of more than 2 weeks may be cancerous.

Alopecia Areata - Diagnosis & Treatment

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder that usually results in unpredictable, patchy hair loss. This is a treatable medical condition (picture on the right).

Alopecia Treatment @ MDIMC

Male Pattern Baldness - Diagnosis & Treatment

Male Pattern Baldness refers to a loss of hair on the scalp in men. It happens as hormone levels change over a man's lifetime, and especially in the later years. This is a treatable medical condition (picture on the right).

Steroid cream overuse - Diagnosis & Treatment

Prolonged overuse of Steroid cream can result in:

  • Redness
  • Thinning of skin
  • Increased blood vessels

This is a treatable medical condition (picture on the right).

Seborrheic Keratosis

A Seborrheic keratosis is a common noncancerous skin growth. People tend to get more of them as they get older.

Seborrheic keratoses are usually brown, black or light tan. The growths look waxy, scaly and slightly raised. They usually appear on the head, neck, chest or back.

Solar Keratosis

or Age spots/ Sunspots

Solar keratoses or Actinic keratoses are skin lesions that are caused by long-term UV damage to the skin.

These scaly or crusty bumps that form on the skin surface are pre-cancerous lesions that develop on sun-exposed areas of skin. These are not a cancer but are pre-malignant, meaning they have the potential to turn into a Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Age or 'liver' spots are a common form of skin hyperpigmentation and are referred to by doctors as solar lentigines. These small, darkened patches are usually found on the hands and face or other areas frequently exposed to the sun.

Corns & Calluses

Corns are hard, thickened areas of skin that typically occur on the feet. They are similar to a callus, but are usually harder, smaller, and more painful.

Corns aren't dangerous, but they can cause irritation. They are also more likely to affect women than men.


A Hemangioma is a bright red birthmark that shows up at birth or in the first or second week of life.

It looks like a rubbery bump and is made up of extra blood vessels in the skin. A Hemangioma can occur anywhere on the body, but most commonly appears on the face, scalp, chest or back.

They are non-cancerous growths that form on your skin or liver. Most people develop them in the womb and they are usually harmless.


Syringoma is a non-cancerous or benign bump, usually develop on the neck, upper cheeks, and the lower region of the eyes, but occasionally they grow on the abdomen, armpit, scalp, bellybutton, and genitals.

Syringomas are completely harmless and are caused by the overgrowth of cells from overactive sweat glands (eccrine glands).


Rosacea is a common skin condition that causes redness and visible blood vessels in your face. It may also produce small, red, pus-filled bumps. These signs and symptoms may flare up for weeks to months and then go away for a while.

Rosacea is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that most often affects the face. Rosacea worsens with time if left untreated. It is often mistaken for acne, eczema, or a skin allergy. Rosacea appears to be more common among fair-skinned people.

Rosacea Symptoms - Treatment @ MDIMC

Nevus of Ota

Nevus of Ota is a blue hyperpigmentation that occurs on the face, most often appearing on the white of the eye. It also occurs on the forehead, nose, cheek, periorbital region and temple.


A Birthmark is a congenital, benign irregularity on the skin which is present at birth or appears shortly after birth—usually in the first month. They can occur anywhere on the skin.

Birthmarks are caused by overgrowth of blood vessels, melanocytes, smooth muscle, fat, fibroblasts or keratinocytes.

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are superficial veins that have become enlarged and twisted. Typically they occur just under the skin in the legs. Usually they result in few symptoms but some may experience fullness or pain in the area.

They are often caused by weak or damaged vein walls and damaged or faulty valves that allow blood to travel in the wrong direction.

Risk factors include obesity, not enough exercise, leg trauma, and a family history of the condition.

Skin Tags

A Skin tag is a small piece of soft, hanging skin that may have a peduncle, or stalk. They can appear anywhere on the body, but especially where skin rubs against other skin or clothing.

Skin tags are very common and generally occur after midlife. They affect men and women equally.

Skin tags are benign tumors of the skin. They commonly occur in creases or folds of the skin. They are not dangerous, but they can be removed.

Keloid Scar

Keloids are a type of raised scar. They occur where the skin has healed after an injury. They can grow to be much larger than the original injury that caused the scar. Anything that can cause a scar can cause a Keloid. This includes being burned, cut, or having severe acne.

A Keloid scar is benign and not contagious, but sometimes accompanied by severe itchiness, pain, and changes in texture. In severe cases, it can affect movement of skin.

Vascular lesions

Cutaneous Vascular lesions are the most common pediatric birthmarks. Flat vascular malformations tend to persist.

Vascular lesions are relatively common abnormalities of the skin and underlying tissues. There are three major categories of Vascular lesions: Hemangiomas, Vascular malformations, and Pyogenic Granulomas.

Skin Hyperpigmentation

Skin Hyperpigmentation is a common, usually harmless condition in which patches of skin become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin.

This darkening occurs when an excess of melanin, the brown pigment that produces normal skin color, forms deposits in the skin. Hyperpigmentation can affect the skin color of people of any race.

Melasma or chloasma spots are similar in appearance to age spots but are larger areas of darkened skin that appear most often as a result of hormonal changes. Pregnancy, for example, can trigger overproduction of melanin that causes darkened skin on the face, abdomen and other areas.

Acne (Whiteheads, Blackheads, Papules, Pustules, Nodules & Cysts)

Papules develop when Whiteheads or Blackheads cause so much irritation that they damage some of the surrounding skin. The damage leads to inflammation.

Pustules are larger, tender bumps with a defined circular center. The center is filled with whitish or yellowish pus, and the bump has a pink or red base.

A large number of Papules may indicate moderate to severe Acne. Like Nodules, Cysts can be painful and should be treated by a doctor.


A Boil is a bacterial skin infection that forms in hair follicles and oil glands.

Boils usually develop in regions of the body that experience friction or pressure, such as the face, armpits, groin, shoulders, and buttocks

Boils begin as painful, red bumps that develop a pus-filled head as they progress.

Cafe au Lait Skin spots

Café au lait spots or café au lait macules are flat, pigmented birthmarks. The name café au lait is French for "coffee with milk" and refers to their light-brown color.

They are caused by a collection of pigment-producing melanocytes in the epidermis of the skin.

These spots are typically permanent and may grow or increase in number over time.

Café au lait spots are often harmless but may be associated with syndromes such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and McCune–Albright syndrome.


A lentigo is a small pigmented spot on the skin with a clearly defined edge, surrounded by normal-appearing skin. It is harmless.


Freckles are small brown spots on your skin, often in areas that get sun exposure. In most cases, freckles are harmless. They form as a result of overproduction of melanin, which is responsible for skin and hair color (pigmentation).

Laser Tattoo Removal

Laser treatment causes tattoo pigment particles to heat up and fragment into smaller pieces. These smaller pieces are then removed by normal body processes.

Q-switched lasers produce bursts of infrared light at specific frequencies that target a particular spectrum of color in the tattoo ink.

Dermoscopic Detection of Skin Cancer

Cancerous Melanoma

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can spread to other organs in the body. The most common sign of melanoma is a new mole or a change to an existing mole.

This can happen anywhere on the body, but the most commonly affected areas are the back in men and the legs in women. 

Melanomas are uncommon in areas that are protected from sun exposure, such as the buttocks and the scalp.

In most cases, Melanomas have an irregular shape and are more than 1 colour.

Benign Mole

Most Moles are benign or harmless. Moles are types of skin growths or lesions, commonly referred to as a nevus.

The only moles that are of medical concern are those that look different than other existing moles or those that first appear after age 20. If you notice changes in a mole's color, height, size, or shape, you should have a skin doctor evaluate it. You also should have moles checked if they bleed, ooze, itch, appear scaly or become tender or painful.

Early detection of a melanoma, basal-cell carcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma decreases morbidity and mortality, and therefore result in better prognosis of malignant skin tumours. The typical application of dermoscopy is early detection of melanoma.

Dermoscopy is also use to diagnose other types of skin tumours such as basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, cylindromas, dermatofibromas, angiomas, seborrheic keratosis etc.

It is also used in the diagnosis of scabies and pubic louse. This is achieved by staining the skin with India ink. A dermatoscope can help identify the location of the mite in the burrow, facilitating scraping of the scabetic burrow. The dermatoscope can magnify the very small, difficult to see pubic louse, allowing fast and accurate diagnosis and hence, the treatment.

Suspicious moles can be excised by a doctor for biopsy and histology.

Skin Cancer Signs & Symptoms - MDIMC


Psoriasis can also affect the fingernails and toenails, leading to thick fingernails with pitting.

Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes red, itchy scaly patches, most commonly on the knees, elbows, trunk and scalp. It is a non-contagious inflammatory chronic autoimmune condition that causes the rapid buildup of skin cells.

Psoriasis is a common, long-term disease with no cure. It tends to go through cycles, flaring for a few weeks or months, then subsiding for a while or going into remission.

Psoriasis - Treatment @ MDIMC

Dry Skin

Dry skin is a very common skin condition characterized by a lack of the appropriate amount of water in the most superficial layer of the skin, the epidermis.

Dry skin is an uncomfortable condition, marked by scaling, itching, and cracking.

Dry skin is not usually serious. In most cases it is caused by factors like hot or cold weather, low moisture in the air, and soaking in hot water. It can also happen as a result of frequent bathing, use of harsh soaps, aging, or certain medical conditions.


Eczema is a condition where patches of skin become inflamed, itchy, red, cracked and rough. Blisters may sometimes occur.

Eczema is sometimes called Atopic Dermatitis, which is the most common form. It also commonly affects children.

Eczema is associated with a personal or family history of Atopy ('Atopic' refers to an allergy), which is a group of disorders that include Eczema, asthma and allergic rhintitis.

Contact Dermatitis

Allergic Contact Dermatitis is a red, itchy rash caused by direct contact with an allergen or irritant, causing an allergic reaction to it.

The rash is not contagious or life-threatening, but it can be very uncomfortable. Many substances can cause such reactions, including soaps, cosmetics, fragrances, jewelry and plants.

Skin Rash

A Rash is a noticeable change in the texture or color of your skin. Your skin may become scaly, bumpy, itchy, or otherwise irritated.

Rashes lasting more than a few days that are unexplained should be evaluated by a doctor, especially if any of the following symptoms are present :

  • Fever, which can indicate the presence of an infection, serious reaction to a medication, or rheumatologic disease.
  • A rash that is painful and that is all over the body or spreading rapidly.
  • A rash that has not improved with home care.

Urticaria or Hives

Urticaria, also known as Hives, is an outbreak of swollen, pale red bumps or plaques (wheals) on the skin that appear suddenly, either as a result of the body's reaction to certain allergens, or for unknown reasons.

Hives usually cause itching, but may also burn or sting. They can be triggered by:

  • stress
  • medications
  • insect bites or stings
  • sunlight
  • cold temperatures
  • infection
  • other underlying conditions

A Comprehensive Allergy Test can be done at a medical clinic.

Comprehensive Allergies Test for up to 101 allergens:
* Food Allergy eg Seafood, Nuts, Eggs, Fish, Meat, Fruits, Seeds or Vegetables
* Dust/Mold Allergy
* Insect Sting Allergy
* Pet/Cockroach Allergy
* Eye or Skin Allergy
* Sinus Infection/Allergic Rhinitis
* Drug/Latex Allergy

Here's a convenient table of different kinds of pattern of rash caused by bites of common insects around you. If unsure, please consult your skin doctor.

Bed Bug Bites

Bed bug nymphs >

Bee Sting

Fire Ant Bites

Flea Bites

Hair Lice Bites

Mosquito Bites

Sandfly Bites

Scabies Mites Bites / Burrows

Spider Bite

Infected Spider Bite

Tick Bite

Ticks before & after feeding

Recognising symptoms of Anaphylaxis (Severe Allergic Reaction)

  • Itching, swelling of lips
  • Itching, tightness, stridor (high-pitched, wheezing sound caused by disrupted airflow), hoarseness
  • Itching, hives, redness and swelling
  • Rapid breathing, cough, wheeze
  • Giddiness, weak pulse, pale, clammy, loss of consciousness

Seek immediate medical attention. Call 995 for emergency ambulance. Ensure that the person is lying down in a safe location, keeping airway patent and maintaining breathing.

Dermatology Problems - Treatment of Acne, Dry Skin, Warts, Corns & Calluses on Feet

Acne Causes & Prevention - Treatment @ MDIMC

Skin Problems - Treatment for Allergies, Dermatitis, Eczema & Urticaria/Hives

Allergy Symptoms & Testing - Treatment @ MDIMC

The information provided in this website is for knowledge purposes only. It does not constitute medical advice.

Should you encounter any medical problem that you are unsure of, always consult your doctor or health care provider for assistance and medical advice.

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