Sinopharm COVID-19 & Latest Influenza Vaccines (Protects against Flu and H1N1 Viruses) / Pre-Departure COVID-19 PCR  Swab & Serology Tests for Travellers, Serology Testing to Certify Vaccination status and Pre-Event COVID Testing. Make your Appointment at Tel: 6694 1661

Flu Subsidy Scheme eligible for Singaporeans & PRs (Pay subsidized rate of $10 for Consultation and Treatment) & Merdeka Generation /Pioneer Generation seniors (Pay subsidized $5) for patients with Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs).

How do Asymptomatic COVID-19 cases affect the COVID-19 Pandemic?

"File:14 Hegasy COVID-19 Q EN.svg" by Iñaki LL is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0


Asymptomatic or Presymptomatic ‘Silent’ Transmission

Asymptomatic: people who carry the active virus in their body but never develop any symptoms

Presymptomatic: people who have been infected and are incubating the virus but don't yet show symptoms

Very mildly symptomatic: people who feel a little unwell from a COVID-19 infection but continue to come in close contact with others

The percentage of the population infected with COVID-19 implied by the official case count and the serology survey differs widely (Ref : The Economist – Uncertainty’s Principals, Science & Technology 2 May 20). Samples of mass testing in various cities have shown actual infection rates ranging from 2.5% to 20%.

According to a study by the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota, many asymptomatic COVID-19 cases are undetected and there are indications that screening symptomatic contacts with a single throat swab test for SARS-CoV-2 might lead to an underestimate of the rate of infection and that asymptomatic persons can repeatedly revert between positive and negative PCR results on throat specimens.

The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, University of Oxford found that between 5% and 80% of people testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 may be asymptomatic, presymptomatic or show mild symptoms. Thus symptom-based screening will miss cases, perhaps a lot of them. Their research also found children and young adults can be asymptomatic.


COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Virus Information


Infectious Viral Shedding

Another study by the Academy of Medicine, Singapore found that the infectious period of SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic individuals may begin around 2 days before the onset of symptoms, and persists for about 7-10 days after the onset of symptoms. Viable virus was not found after the second week of illness despite the persistence of PCR detection of RNA (that is a false positive PCR test). Thus viral RNA detection by PCR does not equate to infectiousness or viable virus. A small but important study from Germany found that the degree of viral shedding was very high in the first week of symptoms. Infectious virus was cultured from throat and lung specimens in the first week of symptoms, but none after day 8 in spite of high viral loads detected by regular PCR tests.

Scientists from the University of Texas at Austin in a study to be published in the journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases found that the serial interval (time between one person developing the symptoms of a condition and a second person becoming infected and developing symptoms) for SARS-CoV-2 was approximately 4-5 days. The shorter the serial interval makes an epidemic harder to contain and more likely to spread quickly.

A modelling paper in Science suggests that in China before the lockdown, undiscovered cases — mainly people with "mild, limited or no symptoms" — were less infectious than known cases but were still possibly responsible for 79% of transmission, because so many of them continued to congregate or travel while contagious.

It is estimated by other papers from Singapore and China that people who had not yet developed symptoms transmitted around 6-13% of the cases studied. People can transmit the virus before symptoms begin during the incubation period, and the time between transmission and symptoms could be anything from 2-14 days.

< COVID Toes in otherwise Asymptomatic patients

Some Pre-symptomatic patients have displayed this condition.

COVID-19 Health Statistics

Researchers from China's Center for Disease Control and Prevention in a study of 72,000 COVID-19 patients found a 2.3% death rate.

A total of 81% of cases in a JAMA study were classified as mild, meaning they did not result in pneumonia or resulted in only mild pneumonia. Fourteen percent of cases were severe (marked by difficulty breathing), and 5% were critical (respiratory failure, septic shock, and/or multiple organ dysfunction or failure).

COVID-19 is less deadly but more transmissible than SARS or MERS. So looking on the bright side, based on the statistics, 97.7% of infected COVID-19 cases will survive. Upwards of 70% depending on your health status, will be asymptomatic. The remaining cases might display mild to more serious symptoms if you have any of the risk factors (Use this Prognostic Tool to assess your COVID-19 risk of complications).

Continue to take Safety preventive measures until the COVID-19 vaccine becomes available. This is estimated to be in the second half of 2021, according to GSK & Sanofi, the 2 biggest vaccine makers in the world.

COVID SARS-CoV-2 Life cycle / Viral structure / Immune response

Get Vaccinated!

  • COVID Vaccine & Booster
  • Flu Vaccine
  • Childhood & Adult Vaccine schedule (Refer to NAIS & NCIS)

Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella).

Health Assessment & Screening Packages


Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella).

Part of MOH's Swab & Go Home programme. Our clinic can carry out the COVID-19 Swab test for anyone who meets the MOH medical criteria. All individuals aged 13 and above, diagnosed with ARI will be COVID Swab-tested. Cost of Swab test to be borne by Ministry of Health Singapore.

Part of the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance programme with MOH. If you have a fever of > 38 degrees with a cough, our clinic is able to test for COVID-19. For children below 12 years old with clinical diagnosis of HFMD (eg fever, oral ulcers, rash), our clinic can test for Hand Foot & Mouth Disease (The tests are for surveillance purposes only).

Co-infection of COVID-19 with other infectious diseases is possible.

Reduce your risk of getting sick with COVID-19

  • Make sure your vaccinations are up-to-date. People older than 65 years, and those with many underlying conditions, such as those who are immunocompromised or with significant liver disease, are recommended to receive vaccinations against influenza (Flu 2021/22) and pneumococcal disease (PCV). Click here for Vaccination schedules (NAIS/NCIS).
  • Do not delay getting medical care for your underlying condition because of COVID-19. MD International Medical Centre has contingency MOH infection prevention protocols to protect you from getting COVID-19 if you need care for your underlying condition.
  • Continue your medications and do not change your treatment plan without talking to your doctor.
  • Make sure that you have at least a two-week supply of your chronic disease medications.
  • Call MDIMC @ Tel: 6694 1661 for a medical appointment if you have any concerns about your underlying medical conditions or if you get sick. Our clinic is a PHPC-accredited medical clinic. Under the MOH Swab & Go Home programme, our doctors can do a COVID-19 PCR Swab test if you meet the MOH medical crtieria.

Vitamins & Nutrients for a Well-functioning Immune System to Protect against COVID-19 & other Viral Infections

(Ref: Nutrients. 2020 Apr 23;12(4). pii: E1181. doi: 10.3390/nu12041181 Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections Calder PC1, Carr AC2, Gombart AF3, Eggersdorfer M4.

Healthy Diets for Optimal Health


Groups at Higher Risk for Severe Illness in a COVID-19 Infection

Comorbidities & Underlying Health Conditions in COVID-19 Patients with Complications

·       Hypertension

·       Diabetes mellitus

·       Cerebrovascular disease

·       Cardiovascular disease

·       Chronic lung diseases including COPD

·       Chronic Kidney disease

·       Asthma

·       Dementia

·       Chronic Neurological Disorders

·       Cancer

·       Rheumatological Disorder

·       Obesity

·       Smoking

·       Chronic Hematologic disease / Haemoglobin Blood Disorders

·       Liver disease / Hepatitis B Infection

·       Malnutrition

·       Immunodeficiency / Immunocompromised eg HIV AIDS

·       People aged 65 and older

(Ref: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-020-0642-3.pdf, Dailymail.co.uk, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32320003/, Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2020/03/17/13993003.00547-2020


Public Health Preparedness Clinic

National University Health System Primary Care Network

Singapore Ministry of Health Chronic Disease Management Programme (CDMP)

The information provided in this website is for knowledge purposes only. It does not constitute medical advice.

Should you encounter any medical problem that you are unsure of, always consult your doctor or health care provider for assistance and medical advice.

MD International (Singapore) Pte Ltd

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9 Taman Serasi #01-11, Botanic Gardens View

Tel : 65-6694-1661  Fax : 65-6694 1771

Email : contact@mdimc.sg

Clinic hours:

Monday to Friday: 9am-12.30pm / 2pm-6.30pm    Saturday: 9.30am-1pm

*Last registration is 30mins before the closing time

Closed on Sundays & Public Holidays

- Cashless service with most International Insurance companies and Insurance Medical cards are accepted

- Japanese & Mandarin-speaking Doctors and Medical staff

Please contact us at Tel: 6694 1661 to make an appointment.

OUR MEDICAL TEAM

Dr Don Lau – Medical Director

MBBS (Monash), B Med Sc (Hons) (Monash), Dip Pract Derm (Wales, UK)

Fujiwara Takanori

- Doctor of Chiropractic

The Chiropractic Association Singapore, Japan Chiropractic Register, American Chiropractic Association, California Chiropractic Association

Physiotherapy-trained NBCE The National Board of Chiropractic Examiners

Medical Conditions Treatable with Chiropractic:  

  • Head & Neck – Neckaches/ Spondylosis/ Wry Neck/ Whiplash/ Headaches/ Migraine/ Facial Palsy
  • Back – Back Strain/ Slipped Disc/ Scoliosis/ Sciatica/ Spondylosis/ Spondylolisthesis/ Spondylolysis
  • Shoulder – Frozen Shoulder/ Rotator Cuff Tear/ Impingement Syndrome
  • Elbow – Tennis Elbow/ Golf Elbow
  • Hip / Knee – Anterior Knee Pain/ Runner’s Knee/ Meniscus Injury/ Ligament Injury
  • Foot – Plantar Fasciitis/ Heel Pain/ Metatarsalgia
  • Joint – Arthritis/ Cartilage Wear & Tear/ Osteoarthritis
  • Ligament – Sprains/ ACL Laxity/ Ankle Sprain
  • Muscle – Strains/ ITB Tightness/ Hamstring Tear
  • Tendons – Tendonitis/ Repetitive Strain Injury/ Tendinopathy
  • Sports Injuries
  • Obesity – Exercise & Meal Planning 
  • Post Operation/ Hospitalization
  • Fibromyalgia

Dr Lee Sao Bing – Opthalmologist (in-house Specialist)

MBBS, MMed(Ophth), FRCSEd(Ophth), MD, FAMS

Dr Pang Yoke Teen – ENT (Visiting Consultant)

FRCS (ORL), FRCS(EDIN), (FRCSGLASG), FAMS, MBBS

MD International Medical Centre

Medical Services

Minor Surgical Procedures :

·       Injection for Supraspinatus or Bicipital Tendonitis / Epicondylitis / Trigger finger / Plantar Fasciitis

·       Tendon Sheath Injection

·       Excision of small Skin tumours / Lipomas / Nail bed / Ear lobe cysts / Meibomian cyst

·       Removal of Skin sutures / Skin tags / Sebaceous cysts / Various foreign bodies / Corneal foreign body

·       Liquid Nitrogen Therapy

·       Treatment of Plantar Warts / Calluses / Corns / Ganglions

·       Splinters under nails

·       Olecranon and Pre-patellar Bursitis

·       Ear syringing

·       Embedded earring stud

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