Make your Appointment at Tel: 6694 1661
Asymptomatic or Presymptomatic ‘Silent’ Transmission
Asymptomatic: people who carry the active virus in their body but never develop any symptoms
Presymptomatic: people who have been infected and are incubating the virus but don't yet show symptoms
Very mildly symptomatic: people who feel a little unwell from a COVID-19 infection but continue to come in close contact with others
The percentage of the population infected with COVID-19 implied by the official case count and the serology survey differs widely (Ref : The Economist – Uncertainty’s Principals, Science & Technology 2 May 20). Samples of mass testing in various cities have shown actual infection rates ranging from 2.5% to 20%.
According to a study by the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota, many asymptomatic COVID-19 cases are undetected and there are indications that screening symptomatic contacts with a single throat swab test for SARS-CoV-2 might lead to an underestimate of the rate of infection and that asymptomatic persons can repeatedly revert between positive and negative PCR results on throat specimens.
The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, University of Oxford found that between 5% and 80% of people testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 may be asymptomatic, presymptomatic or show mild symptoms. Thus symptom-based screening will miss cases, perhaps a lot of them. Their research also found children and young adults can be asymptomatic.
COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Virus Information
Infectious Viral Shedding
Another study by the Academy of Medicine, Singapore found that the infectious period of SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic individuals may begin around 2 days before the onset of symptoms, and persists for about 7-10 days after the onset of symptoms. Viable virus was not found after the second week of illness despite the persistence of PCR detection of RNA (that is a false positive PCR test). Thus viral RNA detection by PCR does not equate to infectiousness or viable virus. A small but important study from Germany found that the degree of viral shedding was very high in the first week of symptoms. Infectious virus was cultured from throat and lung specimens in the first week of symptoms, but none after day 8 in spite of high viral loads detected by regular PCR tests.
Scientists from the University of Texas at Austin in a study to be published in the journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases found that the serial interval (time between one person developing the symptoms of a condition and a second person becoming infected and developing symptoms) for SARS-CoV-2 was approximately 4-5 days. The shorter the serial interval makes an epidemic harder to contain and more likely to spread quickly.
A modelling paper in Science suggests that in China before the lockdown, undiscovered cases — mainly people with "mild, limited or no symptoms" — were less infectious than known cases but were still possibly responsible for 79% of transmission, because so many of them continued to congregate or travel while contagious.
It is estimated by other papers from Singapore and China that people who had not yet developed symptoms transmitted around 6-13% of the cases studied. People can transmit the virus before symptoms begin during the incubation period, and the time between transmission and symptoms could be anything from 2-14 days.
< COVID Toes in otherwise Asymptomatic patients
Some Pre-symptomatic patients have displayed this condition.
COVID-19 Health Statistics
Researchers from China's Center for Disease Control and Prevention in a study of 72,000 COVID-19 patients found a 2.3% death rate.
A total of 81% of cases in a JAMA study were classified as mild, meaning they did not result in pneumonia or resulted in only mild pneumonia. Fourteen percent of cases were severe (marked by difficulty breathing), and 5% were critical (respiratory failure, septic shock, and/or multiple organ dysfunction or failure).
COVID-19 is less deadly but more transmissible than SARS or MERS. So looking on the bright side, based on the statistics, 97.7% of infected COVID-19 cases will survive. Upwards of 70% depending on your health status, will be asymptomatic. The remaining cases might display mild to more serious symptoms if you have any of the risk factors (Use this Prognostic Tool to assess your COVID-19 risk of complications).
Continue to take Safety preventive measures until the COVID-19 vaccine becomes available. This is estimated to be in the second half of 2021, according to GSK & Sanofi, the 2 biggest vaccine makers in the world.
COVID SARS-CoV-2 Life cycle / Viral structure / Immune response
Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule
- Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus
(HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap),
Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella)
Pain Relief Management & Treatment, Vaccinations, Health Screening, COVID & Allergy Testing, Dermatology Treatments, Minor Surgical Procedures
COVID-19 Sinopharm Vaccine & Booster
Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV vaccine has now been approved for use by private clinics in Singapore against the COVID-19 virus under the Special Access Route. It is the first China-made vaccine to be approved by the World Health Organisation (WHO).
To date, more than a billion doses of the Sinopharm BBIBP-CorV have been administered. The vaccine has also been approved for use in over 50 countries around the world.
Effects of COVID-19 on the Brain
COVID Symptoms to watch out for:
SARS-CoV-2 Virus Infection of Human Organ Tissues through Cell ACE-2 Receptors:
Singapore Ministry of Health Recommendation:
For recovered persons who had not completed a primary series before infection:
Health Assessment & Screening Packages
Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella)
Part of the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance programme with MOH. If you have a fever of > 38 degrees with a cough, our clinic is able to test for COVID-19. For children below 12 years old with clinical diagnosis of HFMD (eg fever, oral ulcers, rash), our clinic can test for Hand Foot & Mouth Disease (The tests are for surveillance purposes only).
Asymptomatic patients may display no symptoms of illness. Vulnerable people should get vaccinated against Influenza which protects susceptible people from, as well as exclude the Flu and H1N1 viruses should they start to show URTI or ARI symptoms.
a. Vaccination decreases the risk of co-infection with COVID-19.
b. Vaccination reduces the burden of respiratory illnesses in the healthcare system.
The latest Influenza Vaccine is now available. It protects against the Flu and H1N1 Viruses. Ministry of Health Safety protocols are adhered to at all times for the safe vaccination of you and your family.
Co-infection of COVID-19 with other infectious diseases is possible
Reduce your risk of getting sick with COVID-19
Vitamins & Nutrients for a Well-functioning Immune System to Protect against COVID-19 & other Viral Infections
(Ref: Nutrients. 2020 Apr 23;12(4). pii: E1181. doi: 10.3390/nu12041181 Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections Calder PC1, Carr AC2, Gombart AF3, Eggersdorfer M4.
Healthy Diets for Optimal Health
Groups at Higher Risk for Severe Illness in a COVID-19 Infection
Comorbidities & Underlying Health Conditions in COVID-19 Patients with Complications
(Ref: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-020-0642-3.pdf, Dailymail.co.uk, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32320003/, Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2020/03/17/13993003.00547-2020
MD International Medical Centre
Medical Services available:
Public Health Preparedness Clinic
National University Health System Primary Care Network
Singapore Ministry of Health Chronic Disease Management Programme (CDMP)
The information provided in this website is for knowledge purposes only. It does not constitute medical advice.
Should you encounter any medical problem that you are unsure of, always consult your doctor or health care provider for assistance and medical advice.
MD International Medical Centre / MD International (Singapore) Pte Ltd
9 Taman Serasi #01-11, Botanic Gardens View
Tel : 65-6694-1661 Fax : 65-6694 1771
Email : email@example.com
Monday to Friday: 9am-12.30pm / 2pm-6.30pm Saturday: 9.30am-1pm
*Last registration is 30mins before the closing time
Closed on Sundays & Public Holidays
- Cashless service with most International Insurance companies and Insurance Medical cards are accepted
- Japanese, English & Mandarin-speaking Doctors and Medical staff
Please contact us at Tel: 6694 1661 to make an appointment.
Please make an appointment for the following at Tel: 6694 1661:
* Pre-Departure PCR Swab Test / Serology Testing
MBBS (Monash), B Med Sc (Hons) (Monash), Dip Pract Derm (Wales, UK)
The Chiropractic Association Singapore, Japan Chiropractic Register, American Chiropractic Association, California Chiropractic Association
Physiotherapy-trained NBCE The National Board of Chiropractic Examiners
YAMAGATA Chihiro 山懸千尋
· Injection for Supraspinatus or Bicipital Tendonitis / Epicondylitis / Trigger finger / Plantar Fasciitis
· Tendon Sheath Injection
· Excision of small Skin tumours / Lipomas / Nail bed / Ear lobe cysts / Meibomian cyst
· Removal of Skin sutures / Skin tags / Sebaceous cysts / Various foreign bodies / Corneal foreign body
· Liquid Nitrogen Therapy
· Treatment of Plantar Warts / Calluses / Corns / Ganglions
· Splinters under nails
· Olecranon and Pre-patellar Bursitis
· Ear syringing
· Embedded earring stud
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