Latest Influenza Vaccine Available now
Flu Subsidy Scheme eligible for Singaporeans & PRs (Pay subsidized rate of $10 for Consultation and Treatment) & Merdeka Generation /Pioneer Generation seniors (Pay subsidized rate of $5) for patients diagnosed with Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs). Please make your appointment at Tel: 6694 1661.
AIPC is part of MOH's Swab & Go Home programme. Our clinic can carry out the COVID-19 Swab test for anyone who meets the MOH medical criteria. From 1 Jul 20, all individuals aged 13 and above, diagnosed with ARI will be COVID Swab-tested. Cost of Swab test to be borne by Ministry of Health Singapore.
AIPC is part of the National Influenza Sentinel Surveillance programme with MOH. If you have a fever of > 38 degrees with a cough, our clinic is able to test for COVID-19. For children below 12 years old with clinical diagnosis of HFMD (eg fever, oral ulcers, rash), our clinic can test for Hand Foot & Mouth Disease (The tests are for surveillance purposes only).
Up to $400 per Medisave Account per year can be used for Vaccinations under the National Adult & Childhood Immunisation Schedule - Influenza, Pneumococcal (PCV13/PPSV), Human Papillomavirus (HPV2/HPV4), Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis (Tdap), Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) and Chickenpox (Varicella).
June 2020 Update
Sinovac Biotech has entered Phase 3 clinical trials for its coronavirus vaccine. The vaccine has safely elicited an immune response from Phase 2 human trials. The Beijing-based company’s vaccine, called CoronaVac, has not caused severe side effects and more than 90% of people administered with the shot on a 14-day interval have induced neutralizing antibodies two weeks after inoculation.
Using a killed version of the coronavirus, Sinovac’s vaccine is among five Chinese experimental COVID-19 vaccines that have reached the crucial final stage of human testing before they can be approved for public use. The vaccine is now being tested in Brazil, a current COVID hotspot where the novel pathogen has caused the second-largest outbreak in a global pandemic that so far infected more than 7.7 million people and killed over 428,000.
Some of the world’s leading vaccine efforts are seeking to conduct phase III trial in active outbreaks to evaluate the effectiveness of their shots. The vaccine co-developed by the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca Plc are also undergoing late stage trials in Brazil, while Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Moderna Inc. is set to go into phase III trials in the US.
A vaccine adjuvant is an ingredient of a vaccine that helps promote a better immune response, when administered in conjunction with an antigen, creating a stronger and longer lasting immunity against infections than the vaccine alone. Adjuvants also can reduce the amount of virus needed for production of a vaccine, which can allow for greater supplies of vaccine to be manufactured.
COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Virus Information
Vaccines come in several different types :
Inactivated - Some vaccines contain inactivated, but previously virulent, micro-organisms that have been destroyed with chemicals, heat, or radiation eg polio vaccine
Attenuated - Some vaccines contain live, attenuated micro-organisms. Many of these are active viruses that have been cultivated under conditions that disable their virulent properties, or that use closely related but less dangerous organisms to produce a broad immune response. Although most attenuated vaccines are viral, some are bacterial in nature eg viral vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella and the bacterial disease typhoid.
Toxoid - vaccines are made from inactivated toxic compounds that cause illness rather than the micro-organism eg tetanus and diphtheria. Toxoid vaccines are known for their efficacy.
Protein subunit - rather than introducing an inactivated or attenuated micro-organism to an immune system, a fragment of it can create an immune response eg the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus that is composed of only the surface proteins of the virus, produced by recombination of the viral genes into yeast; or the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid protein, and the sununits of the influenza virus. Subunit vaccine is being used for plague immunization.
Conjugate - Certain bacteria have polysaccharide outer coats that are poorly immunogenic. By linking these outer coats to proteins (e.g toxins), the immune system can be led to recognize the polysaccharide as if it were a protein antigen. This approach is used in the Influenza type B vaccine.
Heterotypic - These are vaccines that are pathogens of other animals that either do not cause disease or cause mild disease in the organism being treated. The classic example is the use of cowpox to protect against smallpox. A current example is the use of BCG vaccine made from Mycobacterium bovis to protect against human tuberculosis.
1. Recombinant vector – by combining the physiology of one micro-organism and the DNA of another, immunity can be created against diseases that have complex infection processes eg vaccine that was used to combat Ebola virus in Congo.
2. RNA vaccine - A novel type of vaccine which is composed of the nucleic acid RNA, packaged within a vector such as lipid nanoparticles. A number of RNA vaccines are under development to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.
Vaccines may be monovalent (also called univalent) or multivalent (also called polyvalent). A monovalent vaccine is designed to immunize against a single antigen or single microorganism. A multivalent or polyvalent vaccine is designed to immunize against two or more strains of the same microorganism, or against two or more micro-organisms. In certain cases, a monovalent vaccine may be preferable for rapidly developing a strong immune response.
Romina Libster: The power of herd immunity
How do vaccines prevent disease — even among people too young to get vaccinated? It's a concept called "herd immunity," and it relies on a critical mass of people getting their shots to break the chain of infection. Health researcher Romina Libster shows how herd immunity contained a deadly outbreak of H1N1 in her hometown. (In Spanish with subtitles.)
Are the Pneumococcal (PCV) & Influenza (Flu 2020) vaccines Protective against COVID-19?
Many COVID-19 infections which develop complications cause pneumonia and some are fatal, predominantly among older adults. Co-infection with other viruses or bacteria, particularly those that similarly cause inflammation of the respiratory tract would increase the risk for severe COVID-19 disease. Vaccinating older adults at higher risk of severe COVID-19 disease against vaccine-preventable diseases may help to reduce the strain on the healthcare system from those diseases during a pandemic and also alleviate some of the potential COVID-19 mortality due to co-infecting pathogens.
Vaccines that can prevent respiratory tract infections, particularly in older adults, either through direct protection or indirectly through high coverage childhood immunisation programmes, include vaccines against seasonal influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, measles, Bordetella pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Measles, pertussis and Hib vaccines are already included in almost all routine infant immunisation programmes globally and have largely eliminated the targeted pathogens as a risk to the older adult population through indirect protection.
Two vaccines that target a large burden of the respiratory disease in older adults are seasonal influenza vaccines and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). These vaccines are only included in routine adult immunisation in some countries (including Singapore) but with only moderate coverage.
The World Health Organization recommends seasonal influenza vaccine use for pregnant women as well as older adults (>65yrs), healthcare workers and persons with specific chronic illnesses.
Influenza vaccination could prevent 20% to 60% of influenza infections and thereby potentially a similar percentage of influenza-attributable COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.
PPV23 targets 23 of the over 90 serotypes that are responsible for most adult pneumococcal disease. PPV23 is recommended for routine use in older adults in most high-income countries. PPV23 use in older adults could prevent up to 33-40% of pneumococcal disease and thereby potentially pneumococcal-attributable COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.
Pneumococci have been identified as a major source for often fatal secondary bacterial infections during pandemic and seasonal influenza infections. Estimates for the proportion of pneumococcal co-infections among pandemic influenza deaths range from about 7% during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic to more than 50% during the 1918 pandemic.
Both seasonal influenza vaccine and PPV23 can prevent a substantial burden of targeted disease and mortality among older adults and adults at-risk. Despite a potential collateral reduction in influenza and pneumococcal circulation due to contact reducing interventions, in countries where the COVID-19 pandemic coincides with the season of high risk for pneumococcal and/or influenza disease, vaccination at high coverage will have added benefits: minimising the number of pneumococcal and influenza hospital admission reduces the resources needed to care for non-COVID-19 patients and minimises the risk of healthcare-acquired COVID-19 infections.
Ref : https://cmmid.github.io/topics/covid19/covid19_siv_ppv23.html
Co-infection of COVID-19 with other infectious diseases is possible.
Reduce your risk of getting sick with COVID-19
Groups at Higher Risk for Severe Illness in a COVID-19 Infection
Comorbidities & Underlying Health Conditions in COVID-19 Patients with Complications
· Immunodeficiency / Immunocompromised eg HIV AIDS
(Ref: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-020-0642-3.pdf, Dailymail.co.uk, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32320003/, Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis https://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2020/03/17/13993003.00547-2020
Lung, Neurological, Liver & Kidney Diseases
Immune-mediated Cytokine Storm plays a role in Severe COVID-19 Infections
- Cytokine Storms may occur in Infectious Diseases (eg SARS, Dengue etc) and lead to health complications, negative medical outcomes and/or mortality.
This is a severe immune reaction in which the body releases too many cytokines into the blood too quickly. Cytokines play an important role in normal immune responses, but having a large amount of them released in the body all at once can be harmful. A cytokine storm can occur as a result of an infection, autoimmune condition, or other disease. It may also occur after treatment with some types of immunotherapy. Signs and symptoms include high fever, inflammation (redness and swelling), and severe fatigue and nausea. Sometimes, a cytokine storm may be severe or life threatening and lead to multiple organ failure.
Chiropractic Pain Management, FSS, Vaccinations, COVID-19 Handbook
Accredited Medical Clinic - Singapore MOH Chronic Disease Management Programme (CDMP)
The information provided in this website is for knowledge purposes only. It does not constitute medical advice.
Should you encounter any medical problem that you are unsure of, always consult your doctor or health care provider for assistance and medical advice.
Dr Don V H LAU Chairperson of AMDA Singapore
MBBS (Monash), B.Med.Sc.(Hons) (Monash), Grad.Dip.Derm.(Wales,UK)
AMDA International Peace Clinic is a part of AMDA (Association of Medical Doctors of Asia). We are part of the network of AMDA Peace Clinics & Friendship Hospitals around the world. We dedicate part of our profits to AMDA's worldwide Emergency Disaster Aid Relief missions, Social Development projects and Vaccination programmes.
AMDA, founded in 1984 has carried out more than 200 medical missions, contributing medical expertise and supplies in 65 countries over the last 36 years. AMDA holds General Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic & Social Council (UN ECOSOC) since 1995.
AMDA International Chapters Afghanistan Albania Bosnia & Herzegovina Bangladesh Bolivia Cambodia Canada Colombia Guyana Haiti Honduras India Indonesia Kazakhstan Korea Kosovo Malaysia Mongolia Nepal New Zealand Pakistan Peru Philippines Sakha Republic Singapore Sri Lanka Sudan Taiwan Uganda Vietnam Zambia
9 Taman Serasi #01-11, Botanic Garden View
Tel : 65-6694-1661 Fax : 65-6694 1771
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Monday to Friday: 9am-12.30pm / 2pm-6.30pm Saturday: 9.30am-1pm
*Last registration is 30mins before the closing time
Closed on Sundays & Public Holidays
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Please contact us at Tel: 66941661 to make an appointment.
MBBS (Monash), B Med Sc (Hons) (Monash), Dip Pract Derm (Wales, UK)
Chairperson of AMDA Singapore
MD (Duke-NUS), PhD (Glasgow), M Sc (UK), DLSHTM, B Med Sc (Birmingham)
Doctor of Chiropractic Southern California University of Health Science
The Chiropractic Association Singapore, Japan Chiropractic Register, American Chiropractic Association, California Chiropractic Association
Physiotherapy-trained NBCE The National Board of Chiropractic Examiners
Dr Lee Sao Bing – Opthalmologist (in-house Specialist)
MBBS, MMed(Ophth), FRCSEd(Ophth), MD, FAMS
Dr Pang Yoke Teen – ENT (Visiting Consultant)
FRCS (ORL), FRCS(EDIN), (FRCSGLASG), FAMS, MBBS
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AMDA International Peace Clinic dedicates part of our profits to AMDA's Worldwide Emergency Disaster Aid Relief missions, Social Development projects & Vaccination programmes.
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